The detailed data between RABEX-5 mRNA expression and overall sur

The detailed data between RABEX-5 mRNA expression and overall survival are shown in Table 3. Table 3 Prognostic value of RABEX-5 mRNA expression for the overall survival in univariate and multivariate analyses by Cox regression   Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis Covariant Exp (B) 95% CI P value Exp (B) 95% CI P value RABEX-5 mRNA expression 1.629 1.038-2.555 0.034 1.751 1.098-2.792 0.019 Gleason

score MLN8237 purchase 2.526 1.788-3.568 <0.001 1.953 1.370-2.784 <0.001 Preoperative PSA 2.034 1.338-23.092 0.001 2.025 1.313-3.123 0.001 PCa Stage 4.131 2.888-5.911 <0.001 4.094 2.773-6.043 <0.001 Age 1.282 0.917-1.792 0.146       Angiolymphatic invasion 1.373 0.813-2.319 0.235       Surgical margin status 1.101 0.703-1.724 0.674       Lymph node metastasis 1.044 0.746-1.462 0.800       Seminal vesicle LY2874455 manufacturer invasion 1.358 0.956-1.928 0.087       Discussion Prostate YH25448 cell line cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignant disease in men and

the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States [1]. Prostate cancer poses a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide [1, 12–14]. The treatment of prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy, which may be combined with chemotherapy, hormone therapy or radiation therapy, is curative in many patients with prostate cancer. However, most prostate cancer patients eventually relapse with castration-resistant prostate cancer and develop metastatic disease, which has a poor prognosis because no effective treatments are currently available [15, 16]. Although prostate-specific antigen screening has become very common in the clinic,

this marker lacks specificity [17]. Up to 25% patients with prostate cancer have prostate-specific antigen levels < 4.0 ng/ml, and elevated prostate-specific antigen Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase levels can also result from benign prostatic disease [18]. A substantial proportion of screen-detected prostate cancers may have been overdiagnosed and subsequently overtreated, while others may not have been detected and treated early enough. The predictive value of conventional clinicopathological parameters for powerful prognosticators, such as pathological tumor stage and lymph node metastatic disease, remains limited [19, 20]. Widespread overtreatment has greatly increased the social burden and poor quality of life. Despite the generally good prognosis for early stage prostate cancer patients, many affected individuals still die as a result of metastasis and recurrence, which is the major cause for most cancer-related deaths. Therefore, the identification of reliable biomarkers for identifying prostate cancer and predicting recurrence is critical for early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation, and for therapeutic molecular targets of prostate cancers [21, 22].

A primer used for sequencing was 5′-CCC TCA TAG TTA GCG TAA CG-3′

A primer used for sequencing was 5′-CCC TCA TAG TTA GCG TAA CG-3′ (-96 gIII sequencing primer, provided in the #SCH727965 cost randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# Ph.D.-12 Phage display peptide library kit). Homologous analysis and multiple sequence alignment

were done using the BLAST and Clustal W programs to determine the groups of related peptides. Cell-Based ELISA with Phage A498 and HK-2 were cultured in DMEM with 10% FCS at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2, and the cells were seeded into 96-well plates (1 × 105 cells/well) overnight. Cells were then fixed on 96-well plates by 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 min at room temperature until cells were attached to the plates. Triplicate determinations were done at each data point. Selectivity was determined using a formula as follows [11]: Selectivity = ODM13 – ODC1/ODS2 – ODC2. Here, ODM13 and OD C1 represent the OD values from the selected phages and control phages binding to A498 cells, respectively. OD S2 and ODC2 represent the OD values from the selected phage and control phage binding to the control (HK-2 cell line), respectively. Immunocytochemical Staining and Immunohistochemical Staining of Phage M13 Before staining with phage M13 [12], the cells in the different groups (A498 and HK-2) were cultured on coverslips and fixed with

acetone at 4°C for 20 min. Then, about 1 × 1011 Saracatinib molecular weight pfu of phage M13 diluted in PBS were added onto the coverslips and incubated at 4°C overnight. Coverslips

were then washed for five times with TBST. The coverslips were blocked by H2O2 (3% in PBS) at room temperature for 510 min. After being washed by PBS for 5 min at 37°C, the coverslips were incubated with normal sheep serum for 20 min at 37°C. Subsequently, the coverslips were incubated overnight at 4°C with a mouse anti-M13 phage antibody at a dilution of 1:5000. The next day, the coverslips were rinsed Selleck Venetoclax for three times (10 min for each rinse) in PBS and incubated with a secondary antibody for 1 h at room temperature. Afterward, the coverslips were rinsed three times (5 min for each rinse) in PBS. The bound antibody was visualized using DAB. The coverslips were rinsed for three times (5 min for each rinse) using running tap water before staining by hematoxylin and eosin. Finally, the coverslips were rinsed for 10 min with running tap water before dehydration and mounting. Frozen sections of human renal tissues with and without tumors were also prepared. The steps of immunohistochemical staining were similar to those for immunocytochemical staining described above. Instead of the selected phage clone M13, PBS and a nonspecific control phage with same titers were used for negative controls. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board and Ethic Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University (NO.

Am J Clin Pathol 1966, 45:493–496 PubMed 2 Garrec H, Drieux-Rouz

Am J Clin Pathol 1966, 45:493–496.PubMed 2. Garrec H, Drieux-Rouzet L, Golmard JL, Jarlier V, Robert J: Comparison of nine Inhibitor Library phenotypic methods for detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production by Enterobacteriaceae . J Clin Microbiol 2011, 49:1048–1057.PubMedCrossRef 3. Lavallee C, Rouleau D, Gaudreau C, Roger M, Tsimiklis C, Locas MC, Gagnon S, Delorme J, Labbe AC: Performance of an agar dilution method and a

Vitek 2 card for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus spp. J Clin Microbiol 2010, 48:1354–1357.PubMedCrossRef 4. Tazi A, Reglier-Poupet H, Raymond J, Adam JM, Trieu-Cuot P, Poyart C: Comparative evaluation of VITEK 2 for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of group B Streptococcus . J Antimicrob Chemother 2007, 59:1109–1113.PubMedCrossRef 5. Polsfuss S, Bloemberg GV, Giger J, Meyer V, Bottger EC, Hombach M: Practical approach for reliable detection of AmpC beta-Lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae . MK 8931 price J Clin Microbiol 2011, 49:2798–2803.PubMedCrossRef 6. Wiegand I, Geiss HK, Mack D, Sturenburg E, Seifert H: Detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases

check details among Enterobacteriaceae by use of semiautomated microbiology systems and manual detection procedures. J Clin Microbiol 2007,45(4):1167–1174.PubMedCrossRef 7. Woodford N, Eastaway AT, Ford M, Leanord A, Keane C, Quayle RM, Steer JA, Zhang J, Livermore DM: Comparison of BD Phoenix, Vitek 2, and MicroScan automated systems for detection and inference of mechanisms responsible for carbapenem resistance in Enterobacteriaceae . J Clin

Microbiol 2010, 48:2999–3002.PubMedCrossRef 8. Fiebelkorn KR, Crawford SA, McElmeel ML, Jorgensen JH: Practical disk diffusion method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Low-density-lipoprotein receptor kinase staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 2003, 41:4740–4744.PubMedCrossRef 9. Polsfuss S, Bloemberg GV, Giger J, Meyer V, Hombach M: Comparison of European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and CLSI screening parameters for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production in clinical Enterobacteriaceae isolates. J Antimicrob Chemother 2012, 67:159–166.PubMedCrossRef 10. Sanchez MA, Sanchez Del Saz B, Loza E, Baquero F, Canton R: Evaluation of the OSIRIS video reader system for disk diffusion susceptibility test reading. Clin Microbiol Infect 2001, 7:352–357.PubMedCrossRef 11. Kolbert M, Chegrani F, Shah PM: Evaluation of the OSIRIS video reader as an automated measurement system for the agar disk diffusion technique. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004, 10:416–420.PubMedCrossRef 12. Medeiros AA, Crellin J: Evaluation of the Sirscan automated zone reader in a clinical microbiology laboratory. J Clin Microbiol 2000, 38:1688–1693.PubMed 13. Nijs A, Cartuyvels R, Mewis A, Peeters V, Rummens JL, Magerman K: Comparison and evaluation of Osiris and Sirscan 2000 antimicrobial susceptibility systems in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

It is minimally

invasive and does not require intracardia

It is minimally

invasive and does not require intracardiac catheterization. It can give beat-by-beat monitoring of cardiac output, and can provide accurate information on volume status [74]. Vasopressor agents Vasopressor agents should be administered early in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock of abdominal origin to restore organ perfusion. Their early use may prevent excessive fluid resuscitation. Vasopressor drugs maintain adequate blood pressure and preserve perfusion pressure thus optimizing blood flow in various organs. Norepinephrine is now the first-line vasopressor agent used to correct hypotension in the event of septic shock [11]. Norepinephrine Poziotinib is more efficacious than dopamine and may be more effective for reversing hypotension in patients with septic shock. In MLN4924 ic50 1993, Martin et al. showed in a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial that norepinephrine was more effective and reliable than dopamine to reverse the abnormalities of hyper dynamic septic shock [75]. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines favour norepinephrine [11] and there have been studies since the 2008 update to bolster this preference. De Backer et al. investigated this question in a meta-analysis, focusing only

on those patients with septic shock and again showed that dopamine was associated with greater mortality than norepinephrine [76]. It is well known that dopamine may cause more tachycardia and may be more arrhythmogenic than norepinephrine [77], and as an alternative vasopressor agent to norepinephrine, it should be used only in patients with low risk Fenbendazole of tachyarrhythmias and absolute or relative bradycardia. Epinephrine is a potent α-adrenergic and β-adrenergic agent that increases mean arterial pressure by increasing both, cardiac index and peripheral vascular tone. There are concerns regarding the use of epinephrine in septic patients due to its potential to decrease regional blood flow, particularly in the splanchnic circulation, and elevations in serum lactate. However, no trials have shown that epinephrine results in worse outcomes,

so it may be used as an alternative to norepinephrine [78, 79]. Vasopressin is a learn more peptide hormone synthesized in the hypothalamus and subsequently transported to the pituitary gland where it is stored. It is released in response to decreased blood volume, decreased intravascular volume, and increased plasma osmolality. Vasopressin constricts vascular smooth muscle by directly activating V1 receptors and simultaneously increasing the vasculature’s responsiveness to catecholamines [80]. Vasopressin (up to 0.03 U/min) can be added to norepinephrine with the intent of raising MAP to target or decreasing the norepinephrine dose [11]. Inotropic agents Dobutamine is frequently used to treat septic shock patients as an inotropic agent increasing cardiac output, stroke index, and oxygen delivery (Do2).

Progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were estimated using Kapla

Progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were estimated using Kaplan–Meier analysis and expressed as median values with corresponding two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Patients A total of 855 patients participated in the EAP from June 2010 to January 2012 across 55 Italian centres, including 193 patients (23%) aged > 70 years (median age, 75; range 71–88 years) of which 27 were aged ≥ 80 years. Baseline patient and disease RG7112 chemical structure characteristics are shown in Table 1. Of the 193 elderly patients, 132 patients (68%) received all four doses, 24 (12%) received

three doses, 17 (9%) received two doses and 20 patients (10%) received one dose of ipilimumab 3 mg/kg. Reasons for not completing all four doses of ipilimumab therapy comprised disease progression (n = 22), death (n = 18), deterioration without progression (n = 3), AEs unrelated to treatment Selleck SCH727965 (n = 4), dose skipping (n = 2), patient refusal (n =1), loss to follow up (n = 1), and unknown reasons (n = 3). Only 7 patients (4%)

discontinued for reasons of treatment-related toxicity. Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics Characteristic (N = 855) Patients aged > 70 years Patients aged ≤ 70 years Total number of patients 193 662 Median age, years (range) 75 (71–88) 55 (16–70) Male/female, n (%) 112 (58)/81 (42) 348 (53)/314 (47) ECOG performance status, n (%)      0 105 (54) 458 (69)  1 83 (43) 184 (28)  2 5 (3) 20 (3) Time from diagnosis, months (range) 35 (3–280) 40 (3–280) LDH level, n/n (%)a      < 1.10 ULN 108/175 (62) 336/545 (62)  ≥ 1.10 ULN 67/175 (38) 209/545 (38) Number of previous therapies, n (%)      1 128 (66) 369 (56)  2 41 (21) 192 (29)  ≥ 3 24 (13) 101 (15) Previous therapy, n (%)      Dacarbazine 113 (59) 377 (57)  Fotemustine 54 (28) 268 (41)  Platinum-based chemotherapy 42 (22) 274 (41)  Temozolomide

40 (21) 149 (23)  Interferon 22 (11) 172 (26)  BRAF inhibitor 8 (4) 51 (8) Patients with brain metastases, n (%) 17 (9) 129 (20) Patients with liver metastases, n (%) 75 (39) 264 (40) aLDH data unavailable Venetoclax manufacturer for 135 patients. ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; ULN, upper limit of normal. Efficacy Tumour assessment With a median follow-up of 7.9 months (mean 9.7 months; range 1–31 months), the irDC rate (irDCR) among 188 evaluable patients aged > 70 years was 38% (Table 2). This included four patients (2%) with an irCR, 24 (13%) with an irPR and 44 (23%) with irSD at any time according to irRC, for an immune-related best overall response rate (irBORR) of 15%. Five elderly patients were not evaluable for response due to toxicity (n = 1), loss to follow up (n = 1), only receiving one dose of ipilimumab (n = 1) or unknown reasons (n = 2). The median duration of irDC in elderly patients was 11.5 months (95% CI 9.3–13.7). The irDCR among 26 evaluable patients aged ≥ 80 years was 31%, comprising one patient (4%) with an irPR and seven patients (27%) with irSD.

tuberculosis H37Rv

and VPCI591 (A)- Diagrammatic represe

tuberculosis H37Rv

and VPCI591. (A)- Diagrammatic representation [not to scale] of the mce1 operon. Arrows indicate the position of primers. The hatched box depicts IGPr region. (B)- Fold difference in transcript level in VPCI591 over that of M.tuberculosis H37Rv for Rv0167, Rv0170 and Rv0174 in log phase (dotted) and stationary phase (hatched). The fold difference observed is the average of three independent experiments. Error bars represent the standard deviation. Effect of the regulatory sequence of IGPr on heterologous promoter To examine if the negative regulatory site, -100 to +1 region of IGPr functions independent of the associated promoter activity, we cloned it downstream of a heterologous promoter in pSdps1, driving the expression of β-galactosidase [23]. pSdps1 has 1 kb upstream region Screening Library concentration of the gene MSMEG_6467 BGB324 cell line from M.smegmatis. The promoter in pSdps1 is inducible under CHIR98014 clinical trial glucose starvation; at 0.02% glucose in Middlebrook 7H9 liquid medium in stationary phase [23]. By inclusion of +1 to -100 from IGPr of H37Rv (pDPrBRv) the promoter activity decreased by 35% relative to the control plasmid pSdps1 (895 versus 1358 units, Figure 7). When +1 to -100 from VPCI591 was cloned downstream to dps promoter (pDPrB591), the repression was reversed and the promoter

activity was enhanced by 25% over that of pSdps1 (1709 versus 1358 units). This shows that negative regulation by IGPr functions in the context of a heterologous promoter also. Figure 7 Regulation of heterologous promoter by IGPr. dps promoter activity under induced conditions in different constructs in terms of β-gal activity units expressed as nmol ONPG converted to o-nitrophenol per min per milligram of protein. The transformants were grown in Middlebrook 7H9 medium supplemented with 0.02% glucose (Induced). Each experiment was carried out in triplicates and S.D is indicated

as error bars. Discussion The mce1 operon is different from other three mce operons in having Rv0166, a fatty acyl CoA synthetase that catalyzes the initial step in lipid degradation [4, 24]. On the other hand, mce4 operon is known to be a part of the regulon involved in cholesterol metabolism, however it seems to be just one of the many possible lipid oxyclozanide substrates. Furthermore, it is speculated that mce1 operon may not have a role in cholesterol import as the loss of Mce1 transporter system does not appear to affect the residual uptake of cholesterol in mce4- deficient strain [25]. The presence of 200 base pairs of non-coding sequence between Rv0166 and Rv0167 is yet another feature peculiar to mce1 operon among the other four operons present in M.tuberculosis. In most other operons and also the other genes within mce1 operon, the intergenic distance is not more than one or two codons and often the translation initiation site of one gene is within the coding sequence of the adjacent gene [12].

The genes for the key σ factors (σH, σF, σE, σG, and σK) and the

The genes for the key σ factors (σH, σF, σE, σG, and σK) and the master regulator SpoOA were identified in the genome of DCB-2, and homologs for most of the sporulation genes were identified. Although less conserved, the earliest sporulation genes of sensory histidine kinases could not be positively assigned among 59 histidine kinase genes in the genome (Figure 8). A gene homolog for SpoIIGA, a pro-σE processing protease, was not identified in either D. hafniense DCB-2 or Y51

strains, nor in four other spore-formers of Peptococcaceae listed in IMG. However, a homolog for LY333531 spoIIR was identified in all six strains, the product of which could interact with SpoIIGA for the processing of pro-σE into active σE, a sigma factor responsible for the expression of ~250 genes in the mother cell of Bacillus subtilis [68]. Both genes are also present in Clostridium spore-formers. RXDX-101 solubility dmso Notable Bacillus sporulation AZD5363 price genes that are missing in D. hafniense DCB-2 as well as in Clostridium are the genes encoding SpoIVFB, a pro-σK

processing enzyme, SpoIVFA, an inhibitor of SpoIVFB, and NucB, a sporulation-specific extracellular nuclease (Figure 8). This suggests that although sporulation in Bacillus and D. hafniense DCB-2 have much in common, there are differences in the regulatory mechanism or in the enzyme system for the initiation of sporulation stages. Figure 8 Putative diagram of sporulation and germination events in D. hafniense DCB-2. The proposed genes are based on known developmental and genetic processes of sporulation and germination in Bacillus and Clostridium species. A brief description for each developmental stage and the genes encoding stage-specific

enzymes or structural proteins are depicted. Compartment-specific sigma factors are also indicated. Gene homologs in D. hafniense DCB-2 were identified by using BLASTP with cutoff values of 1e-2 (E-value) and 30% identity in amino acid sequence. Germination of spores occurs in response find more to nutrients (or germinants) which are often single amino acids, sugars or purine nucleosides, and is initiated by binding of germinants to receptors located in the spore’s inner membrane [69, 70]. In Bacillus subtilis, these receptors are encoded by the homologous tricistronic gerA, gerB and gerK operons [70]. Five such operons were identified in the genome of D. hafniense DCB-2 (Figure 8) including an octacistronic operon (Dhaf_0057-64) which encodes additional genes for Orn/Lys/Arg decarboxylase, DNA polymerase III δ’ subunit, polymerase suppressor protein, and corrin/porphyrin methyltransferase, suggesting that the operon is used not only for the synthesis of a germinant receptor but for other metabolic activities in relation to sporulation/germination. Upon the binding of receptors to germinants, release of cations and dipicolinic acid (DPA) occurs through hypothetical membrane channels.

TEM examinations of mixed infections (ca-PEDV and Chlamydia abort

TEM examinations of mixed infections (ca-PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum) revealed aberrant chlamydial inclusions containing fewer bacteria than typical inclusions and were located in viral syncytia or single cells without viral infection. Aberrant inclusions consisted of reticulate-like, pleomorphic, aberrant bodies

(ABs), which were in general larger in diameter PRN1371 research buy (up to 2 μm) than typical reticulate bodies (RBs), with a sparse densitometric appearance and no re-differentiation into elementary bodies (EBs). As already observed in IF investigations, three types of inclusions were present in dual infections with ca-PEDV and Chlamydia abortus (Figure 3c), whereas dual infections with ca-PEDV and Chlamydia pecorum resulted Selleck Stattic in the exclusive production of aberrant inclusions consisting of 2-50 ABs (Figure 3d). Neither chlamydial inclusions nor ca-PEDV virions were visible in mock-infected cells. ca-PEDV superinfection inhibition of infectious chlamydial EBs is chlamydial strain-specific Previous studies have demonstrated that chlamydial persistent forms are non-infectious

[2]. Reduced number or even a lack of EBs in co-infected cells in TEM suggested arrested chlamydial developmental cycle with halted maturation from RB to EB. To ascertain the effect of ca-PEDV inhibition of chlamydial EB production, the yield of infective chlamydial AZD1390 progeny was determined after 40 h of re-infection in three independent experiments for Chlamydia abortus (Figure 4a) and for Chlamydia pecorum (Figure

4b). Neither mock nor ca-PEDV monoinfected cells produced detectable infectious EBs, whereas Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pecorum single infections cells produced abundant EBs. Co-infected cells produced fewer infectious EBs than non-viral infected cells, demonstrating that production of infectious chlamydial progeny was essentially diminished by ca-PEDV-co-infection. Eradication of infectious EB production was almost complete in Chlamydia pecorum double infection, analyzed by reinfection experiments old and found to be statistically different as analyzed by t-test (p = 0.0145) (Figure 4b). In Chlamydia abortus reinfection analysis, several EBs could still be observed in spite of the co-infection with ca-PEDV (Figure 4a). Statistical analysis by t-test revealed no statistical difference (p = 0.2523) presumably due to the high variation in the data. Figure 4 Reinfection analysis of three independent experiments. a) number of inclusions of Chlamydia abortus inclusions after reinfection from mono and double infection. b) number of inclusions of Chlamydia pecorum after reinfection from mono and double infection. This data is consistent with the observations from our IF and ultrastructural analysis.

5 % or 1 2 SD) and lumbar spine (12 6 % or 1 0 SD), larger cortic

5 % or 1.2 SD) and lumbar spine (12.6 % or 1.0 SD), larger cortical bone size at the tibia (CSA and PC, 16.4 % or 1.1 SD and 5.1 % or 0.8 SD, respectively), and higher trabecular bone volume fraction TGF-beta inhibitor review (BV/TV, 14.5 % or 0.9 SD) as a result of increased trabecular number (Tb.N, 8.7 % or 0.6 SD) and thickness (Tb.Th, 5.7 % or 0.4 SD) at the tibia than men in the nonathletic group (Figs. 2 and 3; Table 2). Similar but weaker

associations were found in BI 2536 mw corresponding bone sites at the radius (Table 2). Men in the soccer-playing group had also higher aBMD of the femoral neck (18.0 % or 1.1 SD) and lumbar spine (10.1 % or 0.8 SD), larger cortical bone size at the tibia (CSA and PC, 12.9 % or 0.9 SD and 3.7 % or 0.6 SD, respectively), and higher trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV, 15.5 % or 1.0 SD) and trabecular number (Tb.N, 10.2 % or 0.7 SD) at the tibia than men in the resistance training group (Figs. 2 and click here 3; Table 2). When we adjusted for height and weight, the associations between sport-specific exercise loading and bone parameters remained and some additional associations emerged (Table 3). Thus, men in the resistance training group had significantly higher PC, adjusted for height and weight, at the radius

than men in the nonathletic group (Table 3). Table 2 Sport-specific association between exercise loading and density, geometry, and microstructure of weight-bearing bone in young adult men   Non-athletic referents Type of exercise ANOVA p Resistance training Soccer Number of subjects 177 106 78   Areal bone mineral density Total body (g/cm2)a 1.25 ± 0.09 1.27 ± 0.09 1.36 ± 0.09A,B <0.001 Lumbar DNA ligase spine (g/cm2)a 1.21 ± 0.13 1.23 ± 0.14 1.36 ± 0.15A,B <0.001 Femoral neck (g/cm2)a 1.06 ± 0.14 1.07 ± 0.15 1.26 ± 0.17A,B <0.001 Total hip (g/cm2)a 1.08 ± 0.14 1.09 ± 0.16 1.29 ± 0.17A,B <0.001 Radius nondominant (g/cm2) 0.62 ± 0.06 0.63 ± 0.05 0.63 ± 0.05 0.126 Tibial diaphysis Cortical cross-sectional area (mm2) 266 ± 33 275 ± 37 310 ± 34A,B <0.001 Cortical periosteal circumference (mm) 73.1 ± 4.8 74.0 ± 4.8 76.8 ± 4.3A,B <0.001 Cortical thickness (mm) 4.54 ± 0.47 4.63 ± 0.57 5.13 ± 0.56A,B <0.001 Cortical endosteal circumference (mm) 44.5 ± 5.2 44.9 ± 5.3 44.5 ± 5.5 0.818 Cortical volumetric density (mg/cm3) 1,169 ± 17 1,164 ± 19 1,155 ± 21A,B <0.001 Radial diaphysis Cortical cross-sectional area (mm2) 95.6 ± 12.9 98.9 ± 11.9 100.7 ± 11.0A 0.004 Cortical periosteal circumference (mm) 41.4 ± 3.1 42.2 ± 2.9 42.7 ± 2.8A 0.002 Cortical volumetric density (mg/cm3) 1,194 ± 16 1,188 ± 17a 1,189 ± 17 0.

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