61, CI 95% 3 29-6 46) and (OR=3 26, CI 95% 2 67-3 99), respective

61, CI 95% 3.29-6.46) and (OR=3.26, CI 95% 2.67-3.99), respectively). Also, large bedtime discrepancies in weekend versus weekdays were associated with non-attendance (OR=2.43, CI 95%

1.93-2.02), as well as insomnia (OR=2.25, CI % 1.89-2.67) and daytime tiredness (OR=2.09, CI 95% 1.70-2.57). The associations were somewhat reduced after additional adjustment for depression, but remained significant in the fully adjusted model. Conclusion: The demonstrated relationship between sleep problems and school absence suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted when adolescents present with extensive school absence. Future studies on how the sleep-school absence relationship in adolescence may impact later work affiliation in adulthood are needed.”
“Among the users of atomic force microscopy based techniques, there is an ongoing discussion, whether buy 5-Fluoracil cell elasticity measurements performed on

CA3 mouse fixed cells could be used for determination of the relative elasticity changes of the native (unfixed) cells subjected to physiologically active external agents. In this article, we present a case, for which the legitimacy of cell fixation for elasticity measurements is justified. We provide an evidence that the alterations of cell elasticity triggered by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells are preserved after glutaraldehyde (GA) fixation. The value of post-fixation elasticity parameter is a product of the elasticity parameter obtained for living cells and a constant value, dependent on the GA concentration. The modification Tozasertib of the initial value of elasticity parameter caused by remodeling of the cortical actin cytoskeleton is reflected in the elasticity measurements performed on fixed cells. Thus, such fixation procedure may be particularly helpful for experiments, where the influence of an external agent on the cell cortex should be assessed and AFM measurements of

living cells are problematic or better statistics is needed. (c) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate auditory pathway function and speech perception ability in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). Ten subjects confirmed by genetic testing as being homozygous for a GAA expansion in intron 1 of the FXN gene were included. While each of the subjects demonstrated normal, or near normal sound detection, 3 of the 10 showed electrophysiological evidence of auditory pathway disorder [presenting with the auditory neuropathy/dyssynchrony (AN/AD) result pattern], and 9 of the 10 showed abnormal speech understanding when tested with levels of background noise typical of everyday listening conditions.

In order to study the molecular aspect of the formation of this p

In order to study the molecular aspect of the formation of this product we have characterized the structure and function of xlLTA4H. We solved

the structure of xlLTA4H to a resolution of 2.3 angstrom. It is a dimeric structure where each monomer has three domains with the active site in between the domains, similar as to the human structure. An important Adriamycin solubility dmso difference between the human and amphibian enzyme is the phenylalanine to tyrosine exchange at position 375. Our studies show that mutating F375 in xlLTA4H to tyrosine abolishes the formation of the LTB4 isomeric product Delta(6)-trans Delta(8)-cis-LTB4. In an attempt to understand how one amino acid exchange leads to a new product profile as seen in the xlLTA4H, we performed a conformer analysis of the triene part of the substrate LTA4. Our results show that the Boltzmann distribution of substrate conformers correlates with the observed distribution of products. We suggest that the observed DMXAA order difference in product profile between the human and the xlLTA4H arises from different level of discrimination

between substrate LTA4 conformers. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“The objective of this study was to compare the prognosis and complications between selective neck dissection (SND) and comprehensive neck dissection (CND) for patients with a pathologically node-positive neck in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and the floor of the mouth. This was a retrospective cohort study. There was no significant difference between the SND group beta-catenin tumor and the CND group in 3-year neck control rate (86.2% vs. 85.9%, P = 0.797) or disease-specific survival (DSS) rate (64.6% vs. 61.9%, P = 0.646). Further analyses of the respective 3-year DSS rates in the SND and CND subgroups were as follows: pN1 without extracapsular spread (ECS), 67.7% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.851; pN2b without ECS, 64.7% vs. 68.8%, P = 0.797; and pN+ with ECS, 57.1% vs. 60.0%, P = 0.939. Of note,

there were significantly fewer complications in the SND group compared with the CND group (7.3% vs. 20.0%, P = 0.032). Multivariate analysis showed that the modality of neck treatment, pN+ status, and microscopic ECS did not serve as independent prognostic factors. SND plus adjuvant radiotherapy is a management strategy of high efficiency and minor morbidity for selected oral cancer patients with a pN+ neck with or without microscopic ECS.”
“Purpose: To determine the socioeconomic impact of long-term glaucoma therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive glaucoma patients on medical therapy, following up at our glaucoma service for at least 6 months were recruited. A questionnaire regarding monthly income, cost of glaucoma medications prescribed, availability of medications, travel time, time spent in review clinics, compliance, education status, medical insurance and systemic or local side-effects was administered.

Here, we present the crystal structures of an A-class complex bet

Here, we present the crystal structures of an A-class complex between EphA2 and ephrin-A1 and of unbound EphA2. Although these structures are similar overall to their B-class counterparts, they

reveal important differences that define subclass specificity. The structures suggest that the A-class Eph receptor/ephrin interactions involve smaller rearrangements in the interacting partners, better described by a ‘lock-and-key’-type binding mechanism, in contrast to the ‘induced fit’ mechanism defining the B-class molecules. This model is supported by structure-based mutagenesis and by differential requirements for ligand oligomerization by the two subclasses in cell-based Eph receptor activation assays. Finally, the structure of the unligated PXD101 nmr receptor

reveals a homodimer assembly that might represent EphA2-specific homotypic cell adhesion interactions.”
“Modafinil (2-[(Diphenylmethyl)sulfinyl] acetamide, Provigil) is an FDA-approved medication with wake-promoting properties. Pre-clinical BMN 673 research buy studies of modafinil suggest a complex profile of neurochemical and behavioral effects, distinct from those of amphetamine. In addition, modafinil shows initial promise for a variety of off-label indications in psychiatry, including treatment-resistant depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Cognitive dysfunction may be a particularly important emerging treatment target for modafinil, across these and other neuropsychiatric disorders. We aimed to

comprehensively review the empirical literature on neurochemical actions of modafinil, and effects on cognition in animal models, healthy Navitoclax research buy adult humans, and clinical populations. We searched PubMed with the search term ‘modafinil’ and reviewed all English-language articles for neurochemical, neurophysiological, cognitive, or information-processing experimental measures. We additionally summarized the pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil and clinical efficacy in psychiatric patients. Modafinil exhibits robust effects on catecholamines, serotonin, glutamate, gamma amino-butyric acid, orexin, and histamine systems in the brain. Many of these effects may be secondary to catecholamine effects, with some selectivity for cortical over subcortical sites of action. In addition, modafinil (at well-tolerated doses) improves function in several cognitive domains, including working memory and episodic memory, and other processes dependent on prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. These effects are observed in rodents, healthy adults, and across several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, modafinil appears to be well-tolerated, with a low rate of adverse events and a low liability to abuse. Modafinil has a number of neurochemical actions in the brain, which may be related to primary effects on catecholaminergic systems. These effects are in general advantageous for cognitive processes.

Although the biology behind its involvement in cancer progression

Although the biology behind its involvement in cancer progression needs to be better understood, implementation of NG2/CSPG4 in the routine clinical practice is attainable and has the potential to contribute to an improved individualized management of cancer patients. In this context, its polymorphic nature seems to be particularly valuable in the effort to standardize informative diagnostic procedures and consolidate forcible immunotherapeutic treatment strategies. We discuss

here the underpinnings for this potential and highlight the benefits of taking advantage of the intra-tumour and inter-patient variability in the regulation of NG2/CSPG4 expression. We envision that NG2/CSPG4 may effectively be exploited in therapeutic interventions aimed at averting resistance to target therapy agents and at interfering with secondary lesion formation and/or tumour buy SN-38 recurrence.”
“Vallon V, Rieg T. Regulation of renal NaCl and water transport

by the ATP/UTP/P2Y(2) receptor system. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 301: F463-F475, 2011. First published June 29, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00236.2011.-Extracellular nucleotides (e.g., ATP) activate ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors in the plasma membrane to regulate and maintain cell function and integrity. Oligomycin A datasheet This includes the renal tubular and collecting duct system, where the locally released nucleotides act in a paracrine and autocrine way to regulate transport of electrolytes and water and maintain cell volume. A prominent role has been assigned to Gq-coupled P2Y(2) receptors, which are typically activated by both ATP this website and UTP. Studies in gene knockout mice revealed an antihypertensive activity of P2Y(2) receptors that is linked to vasodilation and an inhibitory influence on renal salt reabsorption. Flow induces apical ATP release in the thick ascending limb, and first evidence indicates

an inhibitory influence of P2Y(2) receptor tone on the expression and activity of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 in this segment. The apical ATP/UTP/P2Y(2) receptor system in the connecting tubule/cortical collecting duct mediates the inhibitory effect of dietary salt on the open probability of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC and inhibits ENaC activity during aldosterone escape. Connexin 30 has been implicated in the luminal release of the ATP involved in the regulation of ENaC. An increase in collecting duct cell volume in response to manipulating water homeostasis increases ATP release. The subsequent activation of P2Y(2) receptors inhibits vasopressin-induced cAMP formation and water reabsorption, which facilitates water excretion and stabilizes cell volume.

G + C mol%

of strain JC230(T) was 54 1% Distinct morphol

G + C mol%

of strain JC230(T) was 54.1%. Distinct morphological, physiological and genotypic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of strain JC230(T) as a representative of a new species in the genus Spirochaeta, for which the name Spirochaeta lutea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC230(T) (=KCTC 15387(T) = DSM 29074(T)). signaling pathway (C) 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.”
“TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) is a promising anticancer agent that can be potentially used as an alternative or complementary therapy because of its specific antitumor activity. However, TRAIL can also stimulate the proliferation of cancer cells through the activation of NF-kappa B, but the exact mechanism is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that chronic exposure to subtoxic concentrations of TRAIL results in acquired resistance. This resistance is associated with the increase in miR-21, miR-30c, and miR-100 expression, which target tumorsuppressor genes fundamental in the response to TRAIL. Importantly, down-regulation of caspase-8 by miR-21 blocks receptor interacting BX-795 mw protein-1 cleavage and induces the activation of NF-kappa

B, which regulates these miRNAs. Thus, TRAIL activates a positive feedback loop that sustains the acquired resistance and causes an aggressive phenotype. Finally, we prove that combinatory treatment of NF-kappa B inhibitors and TRAIL is able to revert resistance and reduce tumor growth, with important consequences for the clinical practice.”
“Ishida K, Matsumoto T, Taguchi K, Kamata K, Kobayashi T. Mechanisms underlying altered extracellular nucleotide-induced contractions in mesenteric arteries from rats in later-stage type 2 diabetes: effect of ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 301: H1850-H1861, 2011. First published August 19, 2011; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00502.2011.-Little

is known about the vascular contractile responsiveness to, and signaling pathways for, ACY-738 datasheet extracellular nucleotides in the chronic stage of type 2 diabetes or whether the ANG II type 1 receptor blocker losartan might alter such responses. We hypothesized that nucleotide-induced arterial contractions are augmented in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and that treatment with losartan would normalize the contractions. Here, we investigated the vasoconstrictor effects of ATP/UTP in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from GK rats (37-42 wk old) that had or had not received 2 wk of losartan (25 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)). In arteries from GK rats (vs.

Methods: The sample of the study included 186 physicians, 126 mid

Methods: The sample of the study included 186 physicians, 126 midwives and 106 nurses working in primary health care. The Minnesota Job Satisfaction Scale and the Maslach Burnout Scale were used

in the study. Results: The general, internal and external job satisfaction score medians of the study group were 3.35, 3.50 and 3.12 respectively, while the median Anlotinib of the Maslach Personal accomplishment score was 23.00, the Emotional Burnout score median was 15.00, and the Depersonalisation score median was found to be 3.00. Conclusions: The manner of their employment in the departments where they work, their perception of their economic circumstances and their satisfaction of the department where they work have an impact on the job satisfaction and burnout levels of workers.”
“We recently demonstrated that nemorubicin (MMDX), an investigational

antitumor drug, is converted to an active metabolite, PNU-159682, by human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. The objectives of this study were: (1) to investigate MMDX metabolism by liver microsomes from laboratory animals (mice, rats, and dogs of both sexes) to ascertain whether PNU159682 is also produced in these species, and to identify the CYP form(s) responsible for its formation; (2) to compare the animal metabolism of MMDX with that by human liver microsomes (HLMs), in order to determine which animal species selleckchem is closest to human beings; (3) to explore whether differences in PNU-159682 formation are GF120918 Transmembrane Transporters inhibitor responsible for previously reported species- and sex-related differences in MMDX host toxicity. The animal metabolism of MMDX proved to be qualitatively similar to that observed

with HLMs since, in all tested species, MMDX was mainly converted to PNU-159682 by a single CYP3A form. However, there were marked quantitative inter- and intra-species differences in kinetic parameters. The mouse and the male rat exhibited V,,, and intrinsic metabolic clearance (CLint) values closest to those of human beings, suggesting that these species are the most suitable animal models to investigate MMDX biotransformation. A close inverse correlation was found between MMDX CLint and previously reported values of MMDX LD50 for animals of the species, sex and strain tested here, indicating that differences in the in vivo toxicity of MMDX are most probably due to sex- and species-related differences in the extent of PNU-159682 formation. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA) is a rare, invasive, and locally destructive tumor of the nasopharynx. The Writ pathway, angiogenctic and hormonal factors are involved in the pathophysiology of JNA; it can result in an extracolonic manifestation of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or in a sporadic tumor.

“Despite the importance of epigenetic regulation in neurol

“Despite the importance of epigenetic regulation in neurological disorders, little is known about neuronal

chromatin. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons have large and euchromatic nuclei, whereas granule cell nuclei are small and have a more typical heterochromatin https://www.selleckchem.com/products/gilteritinib-asp2215.html distribution. While comparing the abundance of 5-methylcytosine in Purkinje and granule cell nuclei, we detected the presence of an unusual DNA nucleotide. Using thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identified the nucleotide as 5-hydroxymethyl-2′-deoxycytidine (hmdC). hmdC constitutes 0.6% of total nucleotides in Purkinje cells, 0.2% in granule cells, and is not present in cancer cell lines. hmdC is a constituent of nuclear DNA that is highly abundant in the brain, suggesting a role in epigenetic control of neuronal function.”
“Understanding the behaviour of complex environmental systems, particularly as critical thresholds are approached, is vitally important in many contexts. Among these are

the moisture-limited vegetation systems in semi-arid (SA) regions of the World, which support approximately 36 per cent of the human population, maintain considerable biodiversity and which are susceptible to rapid stress-induced collapse. Doramapimod manufacturer Change in spatially self-organized vegetation patterning has previously been proposed as a means of identifying approaching thresholds in these systems. In this paper, a newly developed cellular automata model is used to explore spatial patterning and also the temporal dynamics of SA vegetation cover. Results show, for the first time, to my knowledge, in a cellular automata model, that ‘critical slowdown’ (a pronounced reduction in post-perturbation recovery rates) provides clear signals of system fragility as major thresholds are approached. A consequence of slowing recovery rates is the appearance of quasi-stable population states and increased

potential for perturbation-induced multi-staged population collapse. The model also predicts a non-patterned cover where environmental stress levels are high, or where more moderate stress levels are accompanied by frequent perturbations. In the context of changing climatic and environmental SIS3 chemical structure pressures, these results provide observable indicators of fragility and threshold proximity in SA vegetation systems that have direct relevance to management policies.”
“The bacterial communities in the intestinal tracts of earthworm were investigated by culture-dependent and – independent approaches. In total, 72 and 55 pure cultures were isolated from the intestinal tracts of earthworms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Aerobic bacteria were classified as Aeromonas (40%), Bacillus (37%), Photobacterium (10%), Pseudomonas (7%), and Shewanella (6%).

“The importance of Ca2+ influx via store-operated calcium

“The importance of Ca2+ influx via store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) leading to mast cell degranulation is well known in allergic disease. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. With food-allergic rat model, the morphology of degranulated mast cell was analysed by toluidine blue stain and electron microscope. Ca2+ influx via SOCs was checked by Ca2+ imaging confocal microscope. Furthermore, the mRNA

and protein expression of SOCs subunits were investigated using qPCR and Western blot. We found that ovalbumin (OVA) challenge significantly increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and OVA-specific IgE in allergic animals. Parallel to mast cell activation, the levels of histamine in serum and supernatant of rat AG-881 purchase peritoneal lavage solution were remarkably increased after OVA treatment. Moreover, the Ca2+ entry through SOCs evoked by thapsigargin was increased in OVA-challenged group. The mRNA and protein expressions of SOC subunits, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and Orail (calcium-release-activated calcium channel protein 1), were dramatically CA4P elevated under food-allergic condition. Administration of Ebselen,

a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), significantly attenuated OVA sensitization-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise and upregulation of SOCs subunit expressions. Intriguingly, pretreatment with PI3K-specific inhibitor (Wortmannin) partially abolished the production of ROS and subsequent elevation of SOCs activity and their subunit expressions.

Taken together, these results imply that enhancement of SOC-mediated Ca2+ influx induces mast cell activation, contributing to the pathogenesis of OVA-stimulated food allergy. PI3K-dependent ROS generation involves in MDV3100 chemical structure modulating the activity of SOCs by increasing the expressions of their subunit.”
“Two types of three-dimensional (3D) hybrid organic-inorganic frameworks [Ln(2)(H(2)pda)(SO(4))(3)(H(2)O)(4)](n) [I, Ln = La(3+) (1), Pr(3+) (2), Nd(3+) (3), Sm(3+) (4) and Eu(3+) (5)] and {[Ln(2)(H(2)pda)(SO(4))(3)(H(2)O)(2)]center dot 2H(2)O)(n) [II, Ln = Gd(3+) (6) and Dy(3+) (7)], where H(2)pda is 1,4-piperazinediacetic acid, have been obtained by the reactions of H(2)pda, lanthanide oxides and H(2)SO(4) under similar hydrothermal conditions. All the frameworks are constructed by two-dimensional inorganic lanthanide(III) sulfate layers and organic H(2)pda pillars. The lanthanide(III) sulfate layers in both types I and II consist of the similar lanthanide(III) sulfate chains, which are built from lanthanide(III) ions and eta(3),mu(3)-sulfates, and the different sulfate bridges. The coordination modes of sulfate bridges in I and II are eta(2),mu(3)-bidentate and eta(4),mu(2)-tetradentate, respectively. Each organic H(2)pda pillar in two types is connected with four Ln(3+) ions in a bis-bidentate syn-anti mode. Compounds 1 and 6 are thermally stable below 180 and 300 degrees C, respectively.

(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Chemical inter

(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chemical interactions play a fundamental role in the ecology of marine foodwebs. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a ubiquitous marine trace gas that acts as a bioactive compound by eliciting foraging ZVADFMK behavior in a range

of marine taxa including the copepod Temora longicornis. Production of DMS can rapidly increase following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Here, we investigated whether grazing-induced DMS elicits an increase in foraging behavior in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. We developed a semi-automated method to quantify the effect of grazing-mediated DMS on the proportion of the time budget tethered females allocate towards slow swimming, typically associated with feeding. The pooled data showed no differences in the proportion of the 25 min time budget allocated towards slow swimming between high (23.6 +/- 9.74%) and low (29.1 +/- 18.33%) DMS treatments. BAY 73-4506 However, there was a high degree of variability between behavioral responses of individual copepods. We discuss the need for more detailed species-specific studies of individual level responses of copepods to chemical signals at different spatial scales to improve our understanding of chemical

interactions between copepods and their prey.”
“Segmented organisms have serially repeated structures [1] that become specialized in some segments [2]. We show here that the Drosophila corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and trachea have a homologous origin

and can convert into each other. The tracheal epithelial tubes develop from ten trunk placodes [3, 4], and homologous ectodermal cells in the maxilla and labium form the corpora allata and the prothoracic glands. The www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html early endocrine and trachea gene networks are similar, with STAT and Hox genes inducing their activation. The initial invagination of the trachea and the endocrine primordia is identical, but activation of Snail in the glands induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), after which the corpora allata and prothoracic gland primordia coalesce and migrate dorsally, joining the corpora cardiaca to form the ring gland. We propose that the arthropod ectodermal endocrine glands and respiratory organs arose through an extreme process of divergent evolution from a metameric repeated structure.”
“An experimental study was conducted on the preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline niobium boride and carbide composite (NbB2-NbC) in the Mg-B2O3-Nb-C system via mechanochemical method. The thermodynamic appraisal indicated that the reduction and synthesis reactions were highly exothermic and should be self-sustaining. According to the differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, a pre-milling treatment of powder mixture up to 2 h not only reduced the reaction temperature, but also induced a different reaction path.

Additionally, adolescents

Additionally, adolescents Lonafarnib rated parents’ sleep and parenting styles.\n\nResults: Adolescents’ and parents’ sleep patterns proved to be correlated. Moreover, mother’s sleep was related to adolescents’ psychological functioning.

However, SEM showed that mother’s sleep influenced adolescents’ sleep not directly, but indirectly, via parenting style and adolescents’ psychological functioning.\n\nConclusions: Sleep patterns of parents and their adolescent children show similarities. Moreover, mother’s poor sleep has a direct impact on parenting style, which in turn affects adolescents’ psychological functioning and sleep. Therefore, sleep problems in adolescents may mirror an unfavorable parenting style and sleep complaints among mothers. These conclusions might usefully inform family counseling and treatment

of adults’ and adolescents’ sleep complaints. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Motor neuronal (MN) degeneration in motor neuron disease (MND) often starts focally before spreading to neighbouring MN populations, suggesting soluble factors may contribute to disease propagation. Whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from MND patients contains such factors has VEGFR inhibitor been difficult to prove. We aimed to determine the effect of glia on the response of MNs to CSF from MND patients. Primary rat spinal MNs grown in mono-culture or cocultured with glia were exposed to CSF from patients (MND-CSF) or controls (Con-CSF) and survival measured by cell counting. In mono-culture both MND-CSF and Con-CSF reduced MN survival with MND-CSF reducing MN survival by less than Con-CSF. In coculture MN survival was unchanged by exposure to MND-CSF Selleckchem 4SC-202 while exposure to Con-CSF improved MN survival. In separate experiments, murine MNs grown in mono-culture and stressed by growth factor withdrawal were partially rescued by the

application of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a trophic factor previously found to be elevated in MND-CSF. Our results suggest that MND-CSF may contain factors harmful to MNs as well as factors protective of MNs, the interplay of which is altered by the presence of glial cells. These preliminary results further emphasize the importance of MN environment to MN health.”
“The presence of photosynthetic organisms on the seafloor may indicate whether oxygen evolution contributes to the bottom water oxygen pool in the hypoxic area of the northern Gulf of Mexico. We sampled 3 stations (depth: 14, 20 and 23 m) 100 km west of the mouth of the Mississippi River over 3 hypoxic annual cycles to determine whether microphytobenthos or settled phytoplankton existed on the sediment surface. Microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the presence and composition, and to estimate the biomass of microphytobenthos and phytoplankton in surface and bottom waters and sediments.