These data must be tempered with caution and precise link between NFkB and suppression of anti inflammatory gene net works by CBHA and TSA remains in the realm of speculation. This is because the regulation of NFkB, con sisting of dimeric permutations of c Rel, RelA, RelB, p50, and p52 subunits, via acetylation is highly complex and context dependent. The cardinal features of maladaptive Y-27632 cost cardiac hyper trophy include a major shift from fatty acid to glucose oxidation as the main source of fuel, increased size and contractility of myocytes, and ex cessive accumulation of extracellular matrix and fibrosis. The induction of TNF IFN��, IL 6, and TGFB specific gene networks in the cardiac myocytes in re sponse to TSA and CBHA suggests that HDACIs are capable of interfering with cell proliferation, pro inflammatory and pro fibrotic mechanisms.
Both IPA and KEGG ana lyses also unraveled a striking effect of HDACIs on the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, pur ines and pyrimidines, as well as on the metabolism Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of glutathione and xenobiotics. The potential reprogram ming of gene expression by HDACIs to elicit the gene networks observed here would be expected to alle viate metabolic consequences of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Recent observations have demonstrated that pan HDACIs not only enhance acetylation of histones, but also of numerous other proteins that include transcrip tion factors and enzymes involved in glycolysis, gluco neogenesis and fat and glycogen metabolism.
With regard to the phenotypic changes seen in H9c2 cells treated with CBHA and TSA, it is evident that the signaling cascades induced by both HDACIs culminated Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in the nucleus to re program expression of genes that control growth and differentiation and archi tecture of cardiac myocytes. It was also evident that both CBHA and TSA impinged on a number of com mon transcription factors Myc, p53, HNF4A and NFkB and E2F, EGR2, AP2, and ETF, that are known to modulate the ex pression of genes that regulate S, G and M phases of the cell cycle. A role of NFkB in the protection of cardiac Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries myocytes from inflammatory signals, both in vitro and in vivo is well established, HDACIs are known to regulate NFkB signaling. We should note that in silico predictions of the IPA and CORE TF Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries programs with respect to the putative transcription factors are Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries limited in two ways.
First, these analyses only provide a snapshot of transcription at 6h and 24h and need to be extended on both sides of the timescale used during here. Second, the exact dynamics of in duction of various TFs need to be experimentally vali dated. With these caveats notwithstanding, it is noteworthy that the preponderance of the TFs involved in the regulation of gene expression in response to TSA or CBHA were not identical.