In the case of colon cancer, the assumption is that there is a genetically mediated vulnerability resulting in polyp formation, which converts to cancer via the influence of other genetic or nongenetic factors (ie, diet, environmental toxin exposure). Thus, these polyps will often convert to colon cancer in “high-risk” individuals. The assessment of endophenotypes has come to be increasingly important in our attempts to understand schizophrenia. Of course,
when one Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical considers that there are about 16 000 genes expressed in the brain and, of these, about 6000 to 8000 are expressed only in the brain,54 searching for causative genes associated with the clinical entity of schizophrenia per se is a daunting task. In dealing with quantitative endophenotypic markers and the probability of causal genetic heterogeneity where multiple trichostatin a mechanism of action mutations may induce endophenotypic abnormalities, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical we face a difficult challenge. Also, in analyzing endophenotypic abnormalities, the fact that many brain-based genes are expressed in multiple areas, under varying promoting or disease-inducing nongenetic conditions and across critical neurodevelopmental epochs in the life of the individual, the search for endophenotype–genetic “connections” requires us to sharpen our focus when searching for the vulnerability gene(s) in
schizophrenia. According to Mendel’s Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical second law that genetic traits segregate EPZ-5676 side effects independently in the family, some siblings will express specific endophenotypes independently of others and may be better subjects for characterizing endophenotypic Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical abnormities than the patients themselves. The patients themselves have multiple abnormalities relating to the scope and severity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of their disease, the treatments used for the disease, and the psychosocial, medical, nutritional,
and many factors associated with schizophrenia. The voyage that has been undertaken in searching for endophenotypes in schizophrenia has taken advantage of a generation of important scientific findings. First among these, of course, is the fulcrum finding of the double helix structure of DNA.55 Second, after the structure of DNA was identified, the advances in the understanding of the transformation of DNA to RNA to proteins to function have taken place over the last 50 years in a rapidly accelerated fashion that has enabled Cilengitide us to come within “hailing distance” of truly understanding the relationship of DNA mutations to clinical and endophenotypic abnormalities. Genetic studies of endophenotypes in schizophrenia The candidate endophenotypes that have been examined in schizophrenia range from metabolic and developmental measures to brain structural and functional traits, as well as neuropsychological and neurophysiological indices. The neurodevelopmental endophenotype candidates include mutations in candidate genes such as NURRI.