“In this paper, we propose a new skull stripping method for T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images. Skull stripping has played an important role in neuroimage research because
it is a basic preliminary step in many clinical applications. The process of skull stripping can be challenging due to the complexity of the human brain, variable parameters of MR scanners, individual characteristics, etc. In this paper, we aim to develop a computationally efficient and robust method. In the proposed algorithm, after eliminating the background voxels with histogram analysis, two seed regions of the brain and non-brain regions were automatically identified using a mask produced by morphological operations. Then we expanded these seed regions with a 2D region growing algorithm based on general brain anatomy information. The proposed algorithm was validated Rabusertib price using 56 volumes of human brain data and simulated phantom data
with manually segmented masks. It was find more compared with two popular automated skull stripping methods: the brain surface extractor (BSE) and the brain extraction tool (BET). The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm produced accurate and stable results against data sets acquired from various MR scanners and effectively addressed difficult problems such as low contrast and large anatomical connections between the brain and surrounding tissues. The proposed method
was also robust against noise, RF, and intensity inhomogeneities. (C) 2009 Elsevier https://www.selleckchem.com/products/wh-4-023.html Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Aims and objectives.\n\nThis paper explores the impact of a peer learning initiative developed to facilitate, purposefully, mutually supportive learning relationships between student nurses in the practice setting.\n\nBackground.\n\nFinding effective strategies to support learning in the practice setting has been the focus of professional concern for a considerable time. In the UK clinical mentorship is seen as pivotal to ensuring fitness to practice; however, recent debate on the nature of learning has revealed the clinical workplace as a rich learning environment where learning occurs not only through hierarchical relationships, but also from a network of peer relationships. Formalising peer relationships through peer assisted learning is increasingly suggested as a strategy to support workplace learning and support novice students’ transition to the clinical setting. Despite the developing literature in this field there is limited understanding about how students experience facilitated peer relationships.\n\nDesign.\n\nAn interpretive qualitative design.\n\nMethods.\n\nFocus group interviews were used to collect interactive and situated discourse from nursing students who had recently participated in peer learning partnerships (n = 54). Narrative data were analysed thematically.\n\nResults.
A total of 19 462 polymorphic microsatellites were discovered, and dinucleotide repeats were the most active, with over 26% of loci found to harbor allelic variations. In all, 7 451 loci with high potential for marker development were identified. Better knowledge of the microsatellites in the oyster genome will provide information for the future design of a wide range of molecular markers and contribute to further advancements in the field of oyster genetics, particularly for molecular-based selection and breeding.”
“Context: In the electrically Selleckchem PND-1186 induced cramp model, the tibial nerve is stimulated at an initial frequency of 4 Hz with increases in 2-Hz increments until the flexor
hallucis brevis cramps. Copanlisib order The frequency at which cramping occurs (ie, threshold frequency [TF]) can vary considerably. A potential limitation is that multiple subthreshold stimulations before TF might induce
fatigue, which is operationally defined as a decrease in maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force, thereby biasing TF.\n\nObjective: To determine if TF is similar when initially stimulated at 4 Hz or 14 Hz and if MVIC force is different among stimulation frequencies or over time (precramp, 1 minute postcramp, and 5 minutes postcramp).\n\nDesign: Crossover study.\n\nSetting: Laboratory.\n\nPatients or Other Participants: Twenty participants (13 males: age = 20.6 +/- 2.9 years, height = 184.4 +/- 5.7 cm, mass = 76.3 +/- 7.1 kg; 7 females: age = 20.4 +/- 3.5 years, height = 166.6 +/- 6.0 cm, mass = 62.4 +/- 10.0 kg) who were prone to cramps.\n\nIntervention(s): Participants CH5424802 clinical trial performed 20 practice MVICs. After a 5-minute rest, three 2-second MVICs were recorded and averaged for the precramp measurement. Participants were stimulated at either 4 Hz or 14 Hz, and the frequency
was increased in 2-Hz increments from each initial frequency until cramp. The MVIC force was reevaluated at 1 minute and 5 minutes postcramp.\n\nMain Outcome Measure(s): The TF and MVIC force.\n\nResults: Initial stimulation frequency did not affect TF (4 Hz = 16.2 +/- 3.8 Hz, 14 Hz = 17.1 +/- 5.0 Hz; t(19)=1.2, P = .24). Two participants had inaccurate TFs when initially stimulated at 14 Hz; they cramped at 10 and 12 Hz in the 4-Hz condition. The MVIC force did not differ between initial frequencies (F-1,F-19 = 0.9, P = .36) but did differ over time (F-2,F-38 = 5.1, P = .01). Force was lower at 1 minute postcramp (25.1 +/- 10.1 N) than at precramp (28.7 +/- 7.8 N; P < .05) but returned to baseline at 5 minutes postcramp (26.7 +/- 8.9 N; P > .05).\n\nConclusions: The preferred initial stimulation frequency might be 4 Hz because it did not alter or overestimate TF. The MVIC force was lower at 1 minute postcramp, suggesting the induced cramp rather than the varying electrical frequencies affected force. A 1- to 5-minute rest should be provided postcramp induction if multiple cramps are induced.
We report PTH-independent roles of the CaSR in modulating the response to exogenous 1,25(OH) 2D3 in mice with targeted disruption of both the CaSR and PTH genes (C-P-) compared with that in mice with disruption of the PTH gene alone (C-P-) or wild-type
mice (C-P-). After intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ng/g body wt 1,25(OH)(2)D-3, peak calcemic responses were observed at 24 h in all three genotypes in association with 1) a greater increase in serum Ca2+ in C-P- mice than in the other PCI-34051 mw genotypes on a Ca2+ replete diet that was attenuated by a Ca2+-deficient diet and pamidronate, 2) increased urinary Ca2+-to-creatinine ratios (UCa/Cr) in the C-P- and C-P- mice but a lowered ratio in the C-P- mice on a Ca2+-replete diet, and 3) no increase in calcitonin (CT) secretion in the C-P- and C-P- mice and a small increase in the C-P- mice. PTH deficiency had the anticipated effects on the expression of key genes involved in Ca2+ transport at baseline in the duodenum and cancer metabolism inhibitor kidney, and injection of 1,25(OH) 2D3 increased gene expression 8 h later. However, the changes in the genes evaluated did not fully explain the differences in serum Ca2+ seen among the genotypes. In conclusion, mice lacking the full-length CaSR have increased sensitivity to the calcemic action of 1,25(OH) 2D3 in the setting of PTH deficiency. This is principally from enhanced
1,25(OH)(2)D-3-mediated gut Ca2+ absorption and decreased renal Ca2+ excretion, without any differences in
bone-related release of Ca2+ or CT secretion among the three genotypes that could explain the differences in their calcemic responses.”
“Background Elevated blood concentrations SNX-5422 in vitro of troponin proteins or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) worsen the prognosis of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). Novel biomarkers that reflect mechanisms of right ventricle (RV) damage from PE may provide additional prognostic value. We compare the prognostic use of BNP, troponin 1, D-dimer, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase, myeloperoxidase, C-reactive protein, and caspase 3 as biomarkers of RV damage and adverse outcomes in submassive PE.\n\nMethods This article used a prospective cohort study of normotensive (systolic blood pressure always > 100 mm Hg) patients with computed tomographic angiography-diagnosed PE. All patients underwent echocardiography and phlebotomy at diagnosis, and survivors had another echocardiography 6 months later. We tested each biomarker for prognostic significance, requiring a lower limit 95% CI > 0.50 for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with a reference standard positive of RV hypokinesis on either echocardiogram. Biomarkers with prognostic significance were dichotomized at the concentration that yielded highest likelihood ratio positive and mortality rates compared (Fisher exact test).\n\nResults We enrolled 152 patients with complete data.
“Background: There has been a recent increase in weight management services available in pharmacies across Australia and England. The aim of this study was to determine the following between women in Victoria and Nottingham: similarities and differences of what weight management options are preferred by women pharmacy consumers; how they feel about pharmacists providing advice in this area; and what they desire in a weight management program. Method: Women pharmacy consumers were randomly approached by a researcher in community pharmacies in Victoria and Nottingham and asked to complete a questionnaire click here regarding
their own weight management experiences. The questionnaire was self-completed or researcher-administered and was comprised of four main sections that focused on the VS-6063 participant’s general health, previous
weight loss experiences, their ideal weight management program and their demographics. Data was entered in SPSS 19 and logistic regression was used to identify any differences in weight loss experiences between women. Results: The participant rates were high: 86% (n = 395/460) in Victoria and 98% in Nottingham (n = 215/220). Overall, women in Victoria and Nottingham were similar with comparable demographics. Approximately 50% (250/507) of women were in the overweight or obese body mass index category, with over 70% (n = 436/610) of women having attempted to lose weight in the past. The majority of women (n = 334/436) felt comfortable receiving advice from pharmacists. In the logistic regression analysis women in Nottingham were found to be significantly less likely to have utilised a pharmacy weight management program in the last five years (OR: 0.23 CI: 0.08, 0.63) and were significantly Tariquidar mw less likely to want an ideal weight management program located in a pharmacy (OR: 0.49 CI: 0.30, 0.82) compared to women in Victoria. No significant associations between location and feeling comfortable with a pharmacist advising on weight loss
or wanting a pharmacist in an ideal weight management program were seen. Conclusion: Results from this study have provided information on possible ideal pharmacy weight management programs in both Victoria and Nottingham. Although differences were seen between the two populations, similarities between ideal weight management programs and comfort level with pharmacist interaction were noted.”
“NF-kappa B is an important transcription factor in the immune system, and aberrant NF-kappa B activity contributes to malignant diseases and autoimmunity. In T cells, NF-kappa B is activated upon TCR stimulation, and signal transduction to NF-kappa B activation is triggered by a cascade of phosphorylation events. However, fine tuning and termination of TCR signaling are only partially understood. Phosphatases oppose the role of kinases by removing phosphate moieties. The catalytic activity of the protein phosphatase PP2A has been implicated in the regulation of NF-kappa B.
This review discusses the efficacy of the AIs in improving DDFS in the different adjuvant settings and explores whether significant improvements in DDFS correlate with meaningful improvements in OS or breast cancer-associated mortality. Significant DDFS improvement may be a GNS-1480 cell line quicker, better end point in clinical trials, leading to a more efficient, faster assessment of treatment efficacy.”
“Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an
environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4 C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.”
“For the efficient stimulation of T cells by tumor Ag, tumor-derived material has to be presented by dendritic cells (DC). This very likely involves the uptake of dead tumor cells by DC. Cell death in tumors often occurs through
apoptosis, but necrotic cell death may also be prevalent. This distinction is relevant because numerous studies have proposed that apoptotic cells have immunosuppressive effects while necrosis may be stimulatory. However, a system has been lacking that would allow the induction of apoptosis or necrosis without side effects by the death stimuli used experimentally. In this study, we present such a system
and test its effects on immune cells in vitro. B16 mouse melanoma cells KU-57788 order were generated and underwent cell death through the doxycycline-inducible induction of death proteins. In one cell line, the induction of Bim(S), induced rapid apoptosis, in the other line the induction of the FADD death domain induced nonapoptotic/necrotic cell death. Bim(S)-induced apoptosis was associated with the typical morphological and biochemical changes. FADD death domain induced necrosis occurred through a distinct pathway involving RIP1 and the loss of membrane integrity in the absence of apoptotic changes. Apoptotic and necrotic cells were taken up with comparable efficiency by DC. OVA expressed in cells dying by either apoptosis or necrosis was cross-presented to OT-1 T cells and induced their Barasertib molecular weight proliferation. These results argue that it is not the form of cell death but its circumstances that decide the question whether cell death leads to a productive T cell response. The Journal of Immunology, 2009, 182: 4538-4546.”
“Objectives: We investigated the outcomes of reinforcing anastomotic sites using (1) non biodegradable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt, (2) biodegradable polyglycolic acid (PGA) felt, and (3) PGA felt with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a canine descending thoracic aortic replacement model.
Finally, the very good agreement between the obtained effective selleck screening library carrier lifetime and the corresponding open circuit voltage of a solar cell is demonstrated. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Howland and Baker Islands are two small, isolated reef and sand islets located near the equator in the central Pacific Ocean that are situated approximately 60 km apart. In 2004 and 2006, species-level monitoring at multiple sites, coupled with towed-diver surveys in 2002, 2004, and 2006 on both of these federally protected
islands, revealed diverse fish, coral, macroinvertebrate, and algal assemblages. This study examines inter- and intra-island spatial and temporal differences in community composition Selleckchem CBL0137 among sites and presents baseline biological community parameters for two of the least impacted reef systems in the world. Despite similarities in species composition, permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and multidimensional scaling ordinations (nMDS) suggest biological communities at the two islands are distinct with Baker Island containing a greater percent cover of branched Acroporid corals and turf algae and Howland Island containing
a greater percent cover of crustose coralline red algae and small, compact genera of coral. Both islands also contained considerable cover of non-invasive macroalgae. PERMANOVA further revealed benthic and fish species composition to differ between forereef and reef shelf sites from different sides of each island. When islands were considered as a whole, temporal changes were not noted between 2004 and 2006; however, temporal changes at select sites did occur, with coral cover decreasing significantly along the west side of Baker Island from 2004 to 2006.”
“Introduction: Predicting the neurological outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is extremely difficult. AG-881 concentration We tested the hypothesis whether monitoring
of bispectral index (BIS) and suppression ratio (SR) could serve as an early prognostic indicator of neurological outcomes after CPR. Methods: Cerebral monitoring (BIS, SR) was started as soon as possible after initiation of CPR and was continued for up to 72 h. The functional neurological outcome was measured on day 3, day 7 and again one month after CPR via a clinical examination and assessment according to the cerebral performance category score (CPC). Results: In total 79 patients were included. Of these, 26 patients (32.9%) survived the observation period of one month; 7 of them (8.9%) showed an unfavourable neurological outcome. These 7 patients had significantly lower median BIS values (25 [21; 37] vs. 61 [51; 70]) and higher SR (56 [44; 64] vs. 7 [1; 22]) during the first 4 h after the initiation of CPR. Using BIS smaller than 40 as threshold criteria, unfavourable neurological outcome was predicted with a specificity of 89.
Results: The specimens were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. Upon histological evaluation, no obvious differences Anlotinib research buy were found between the control and the treatment group. Implants showed good
integration into the bone tissue surrounding them. There were also no statistically significant differences in bone-to-implant contact and the amount of bone tissue in the immediate neighborhood of the implant at both healing periods. Conclusions: The systemic administration of ALN was not found to affect histological osseointegration of implants in animals with a hormonal status resembling that of postmenopausal healthy women. Further research will be needed to investigate this approach.”
“The bee genus Augochlorodes Moure, up to now only known from Brazil,
is recorded for the first time for Argentina. Augochlorodes politus Goncalves & Melo was found in the south of the province of Buenos Aires, mideastern Argentina, being the southernmost record for the genus. The female of A. politus is redescribed and the male described for the first time, being the second male known for this genus. The phylogenetic position of Augochlorodes among Augochlorini is briefly discussed.”
“BACKGROUND: Ann plastic spermatocytic seminoma is a rare variant Selleckchem MI-503 of the conventional spermatocytic seminoma, with only 6 cases reported up to now. The anaplastic
variant contains only the medium-sized cell type, hallmarked by large-sized nucleoli, whereas the small lymphocyte-like and Selleck Adavosertib giant cells typical of the conventional spermatocytic seminoma are lacking. CASE: We report herein an unusual case of a 40-year-old man with an anaplastic spermatocytic seminoma which metastasized first to the retroperitoneal lymph nodes and, something never before reported, subsequently to the lung and other organs. The immuno phenotype with c-kit and SALL4 positive and PLAP, as well OCT 3/4 negative tumor cells were identical to those of conventional spermatocytic seminoma. Cytogenetically the tumor cells showed a gain of chromosome 9, typical for spermatocytic seminoma, but simultaneously also the short arm 12p were overexpressed-an overexpression crucial to the aggressive behavior of seminomas and other nonseminomatous tumors but never before encountered in spermatocytic seminoma. CONCLUSION: The current opinion is that seminoma and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors develop from a common primitive progenitor cell, whereas spermatocytic seminomas develop from differentiated spermatogonia. The herein presented cytogenetic hybrid tumor shows that a crossover between the two different histogenetic “tracks” is possible.”
“The genome sequences of intestinal Bacteroidales strains reveal evidence of extensive horizontal gene transfer.
32 +/- 0.112 and a corresponding peak failure true stress LDC000067 inhibitor of 656.3 +/- 483.9 kPa. These are the first data available for the dynamic response of pregnant human uterus tissues, and it is anticipated they will increase the accuracy of future pregnant female computational models. (c) 2012 Published by
“Cisplatin is used as a potent anticancer drug, but it often causes nephrotoxicity. Bee venom (BV) has been used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, and its renoprotective action was shown in NZB/W mice. However, little is known about whether BV has beneficial effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and how such effects might be mediated. In the present study, the BV-injected group showed a significant increase in the population of Tregs in spleen. Although there was no significant difference in the numbers of Tregs 3 days after cisplatin injection between the BV- and PBS-injected groups, more migration of Tregs into the kidney was observed
Dinaciclib 6 hours after cisplatin administration in BV group than in PBS group. In addition, BV-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal tissue damage, proinflammatory cytokines, and macrophage infiltration into the kidney 3 days after cisplatin administration. These renoprotective effects were abolished by the depletion of Tregs. The anticancer effect of repeated administrations of cisplatin was not affected by BV injection. These results suggest that BV has protective effects on cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice, at least in part, through the regulation of Tregs without a big influence on the antitumor effects of cisplatin.”
“Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is known to play a role in human inflammatory oral diseases. The present study aimed to test whether GECs from different individuals show an
altered immune response when exposed to wild-type A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms (VT 1169 and ATCC43718) see more versus VT 1560 lacking a DNA-adenine-methyltransferase (DAM-). GECs were cultured from biopsies derived from three healthy subjects (A-C). To obtain A. actinomycetemcomitans biofilms, each strain (VT 1169, ATCC 43718 and VT 1560 DAM-) was separately cultured on polymer disks. The mRNA expression of hBD-2, Rnase7, IL-8 and glycerylaldehyd-3-phosphodehydrogenase was analyzed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In GECs, the DAM-strain VT 1560 led to a reduced gene expression of hBD-2 and IL-8 compared to VT 1169, but not ATCC 43718. In GECs from subject C, the mRNA expression of hBD-2 and IL-8 was significantly upregulated in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans VT 1169 compared to VT 1560 DAM-and ATCC 43718 (p <= 0.05), whereas GECs from subject A and B did not show significant changes for hBD-2 or IL-8 gene expression upon stimulation with either of the strains tested. The present study indicates strain-dependent and subject-specific immune responses in GECs after exposure to DAM(+) or DAM-A.
Lhx6 mRNA levels were lower (-15%) in schizophrenia and correlated with lower GAD67 mRNA levels. In addition, Lhx6 mRNA levels declined 24% from the perinatal to prepubertal periods then stabilized in monkeys. Finally, GAD67, parvalbumin, and somatostatin mRNAs were not altered in Lhx6(+/-) mice, and Lhx6 mRNA was not altered in GAD67(+/-) mice. These data suggest that PFC Lhx6 and GAD67 mRNA deficits are common components of GABA neuron pathology in schizophrenia. An excessive early postnatal decline in Lhx6 LDN-193189 in vitro mRNA might contribute to Lhx6 mRNA deficits in schizophrenia.
However, a partial loss of Lhx6 is not sufficient in isolation to produce deficits in GAD67 mRNA and vice versa, suggesting that the concurrence of Lhx6 and GAD67 mRNA deficits in schizophrenia may instead selleck screening library be the consequence of a common upstream factor.”
“The aim of the study was to investigate nerve fibers (NF) in human fetal livers. An immunohistochemical study was performed. NF were classified into portal tract innervation (PoI) and parenchymal
innervation (PaI). The hilum area showed many Pol NF at 7 GW, and NF increased with gestational week (GW). Direct innervations to biliary epithelium were recognized. In large portal tracts, a few NCAM-positive mesenchymal cells were seen at 8 GW and many mesenchymal cells were noted around 12 GW. Apparent NF emerged around 15 GW, and NF increased with GW. Many NF plexuses were seen in 30-40 GW. In small portal tracts, no NF were seen in 7-10 GW. A few NCAM-positive mesenchymal cells emerged in 11 GW, and they increased thereafter. Apparent NF were seen around 20 GW and NF increased with GW. At term (40 GW), PoI NF were still immature. Ductal plate (DP) was positive for NCAM, NSE, chromogranin and synaptophysin, and direct innervations to DP were seen. The direct innervations to developing bile ducts and peribiliary glands were also seen. PaI NF were first seen at 21 GW and was consistent until 40 GW in which a few NF were seen in PaI. These observations
suggest that PoI NF arise from committed portal mesenchyme. PaI NF are very immature NSC23766 in vivo at 40 GW. There are direct innervations to bile ducts, peribiliary glands, portal veins, hepatic arteries, and DP.”
“No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as ‘South American native ungulates’. To Charles Darwin(1,)2, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the ‘strangest animal[s] ever discovered’. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago(3), or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria(4-6).
\n\nConclusions: Use of the pi-circuit technique Combretastatin A4 price is very effective for octogenarians. Although these older patients have a higher incidence of early postoperative morbidity, overall survival is not affected.”
“Background: There is no consensus regarding treatment for drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Objectives: We report a single-center observational series of therapeutic management of DRESS. Methods: We examined data for 50
consecutive patients admitted from March 2005 to June 2009 with a discharge diagnosis of DRESS (RegiSCAR score). Results: For the 38 patients with a DRESS score of 4 or more, topical steroid treatment alone was initiated in 66% of cases. On admission, 13 patients
received systemic steroids; in 7 of them, systemic steroid treatment was initiated or maintained for life-threatening organ failure, with kidney, lung, and/or nervous system involvement. Complications of DRESS, such as relapse, viral reactivation, and sepsis, were less frequent with topical steroid than with systemic steroids. None of the patients died during their stay in hospital. Limitations: Retrospective nonblinded design and dermatologic recruitment are limitations. The variables underlying the choice of treatment study were not analyzed. Conclusions: Systemic steroids may not be required for the management of mild HSP990 forms of DRESS, and may thus be reserved for more severe cases. Prospective studies are required to evaluate strategies for treating DRESS.”
“Molecular typing of 246 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from unselected patients learn more in Thailand showed that 10 (4.1%) were actually Staphylococcus argenteus. Contrary to the suggestion that S. argenteus is less virulent than S. aureus, we demonstrated comparable rates of morbidity, death, and health care-associated
infection in patients infected with either of these two species.”
“PURPOSE. Usher’s syndrome is a combined deafness and blindness disorder caused by mutations in several genes with functions in both the retina and the ear. Here the authors studied morphologic and functional changes in an animal model, the Ush2a mouse, and explored whether transplantation of fore-brain-derived progenitor cells might affect the progress of morphologic and functional deterioration.\n\nMETHODS. Ush2a mice were tested at postnatal days (P) 70 to P727 using an optomotor test, which provides a repeatable method of estimating rodent visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. A group of mice that received grafts of forebrain-derived progenitor cells at P80 was tested for up to 10 weeks after grafting. At the end of testing, animals were killed, and eyes were processed for histology.\n\nRESULTS. The optomotor test showed that both acuity and contrast sensitivity deteriorated over time; contrast sensitivity showed a deficit even at P70.