A single, double dose of tenofovir administered shortly before de

A single, double dose of tenofovir administered shortly before delivery resulted in plasma concentrations similar to those observed in non-pregnant adults following a standard 300 mg dose and adequate levels in the neonate [66] (see

Section 8: Neonatal management). New data on emtricitabine show that while third-trimester concentrations are lower Sirolimus nmr than postpartum the absolute concentrations achieved during pregnancy are adequate and dose adjustment is not required [67]. Among the NNRTIs, nevirapine has been extensively studied in pregnancy and plasma concentrations are similar to those in non-pregnant adults [[27],[29]]. No dose adjustment is required when using licensed doses. There are no data on the prolonged release formulation of nevirapine in pregnant women. Efavirenz 600 mg daily has been reported in Target Selective Inhibitor Library one study of 25 pregnant women to result in third-trimester plasma concentrations that were similar to 6–12-week postpartum concentrations in the same women. Cord blood to maternal blood ratio was 0.49 resulting in transplacental concentrations in the therapeutic range [68]. There are currently no data on the pharmacokinetics of etravirine and rilpivirine in pregnant women. PIs are highly protein-bound and placental transfer in humans appears to be limited. During the third trimester of pregnancy,

small reductions in protein binding can significantly increase free drug levels. For example, the protein binding of lopinavir reduces marginally to 99.04%, which results in 17% more unbound lopinavir [69]. It is therefore difficult to interpret the significance of studies that show reduced total plasma levels, with an increased likelihood of trough levels below the target during pregnancy. Compared with postpartum concentrations, third-trimester concentrations of lopinavir (lopinavir 400 mg/ritonavir 100 mg) are reduced by 28%. The protein-free fraction is moderately increased (17%) and, at the standard dose, lopinavir appears to be clinically effective with a wide

variation in individual plasma trough concentrations. A study using the tablet formulation concluded that women unless taking three tablets bd (lopinavir 600 mg/ritonavir 150 mg) achieved similar area under the curve (AUC) levels to non-pregnant adults taking the standard dose of two tablets bd [70]. The improved bioavailability of the tablet formulation is also found in pregnant women and this, together with the impact of pregnancy on changes in protein binding, increases the protein-free fraction in the third trimester [71]. Cohort studies have suggested that the majority of mothers taking the standard adult dose, even with the capsule formulation, have adequate trough concentrations and achieve an effective virological response [72]. The plasma concentrations of saquinavir achieved with the tablet formulation when boosted by ritonavir appear to be generally therapeutic and no dose adjustment is routinely required.

C White (University of

C. White (University of DMXAA order Missouri-Kansas City, MO). MML610 is the azole-susceptible parental strain of the azole-resistant derivative MML611. The sensitive and resistant strains had FLC MICs (the minimum concentrations giving >80% growth inhibition compared to the no-drug control) of 0.5 and 64 μg mL−1, respectively (Holmes et al., 2008). Strain MML610 expressed basal levels of Cdr1p but MML611 expressed significant amounts of both Cdr1p and Cdr2p, and neither strain

expressed Mdr1p (Holmes et al., 2008). The strains did not contain ERG11 mutations previously shown to be associated with the acquisition of FLC resistance. The resistant strain did possess a mutation (T580C) that results in a Phe-to-Leu change at position 145 (F145L) in Erg11p. This mutation has been shown not to

be associated with azole resistance (Marr et al., 2001; Morio et al., 2010). Candida albicans cells were stored at −80 °C in Sabouraud dextrose broth (Becton Dickinson, MD) containing 0.5% yeast extract (Becton Dickinson) and 10% glycerol (v/v, final concentration). The strains were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar plates for 20 h at 37 °C before use in the mouse oral candidiasis model. Experimental procedures for the mouse oral candidiasis model have been described previously (Takakura et al., 2003), and all animal experiments were performed according to the guidelines for the care and use of animals approved by Teikyo University. Six-week-old female ICR mice (Charles River Japan, Inc., Kanagawa, Japan) were immunosuppressed by subcutaneous treatment with prednisolone (100 mg kg−1; Mitaka Pharmaceutical Selumetinib Co., Mephenoxalone Tokyo, Japan)

1 day prior to oral infection. Tetracycline hydrochloride (15 mg mL−1; Takeda Shering Purau Animal Health Co., Tokyo, Japan) was added to the mice’s drinking water, from 1 day before infection. Thirty minutes before Candida infection, and before the second round of oral administration (24 h later), the mice were anaesthetized for approximately 3 h by intramuscular injection of the foot with 100 μL of chlorpromazine chloride (14.4 mg kg−1; Wako Pure Chemical Industries Ltd, Osaka, Japan). The mice were infected orally by rolling a cotton swab (baby cotton buds; Johnson & Johnson Co., Tokyo, Japan) soaked in a suspension of C. albicans cells (2–3 × 108 viable cells mL−1 in RPMI 1640 medium containing 2.5% fetal calf serum) over all areas of the mouth. The number of Candida cells inoculated in the oral cavity was calculated to be about 1~1.5 × 106 cells per mouse based on the difference in viable cell number present on the cotton swabs before and after oral inoculation (Taguchi et al., 2011). The d-octapeptide derivative RC21 specifically inhibits Cdr1p (Holmes et al., 2008), and its active principal RC21v3 used in the present experiments was prepared by manual peptide synthesis, purified by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry at the Centre for Separation Science at Massey University (Palmerston North, New Zealand).

, 2009) Based on these data, we evaluated how heme A is synthesi

, 2009). Based on these data, we evaluated how heme A is synthesized by T. cruzi (and the other trypanosomatids). The coding sequences for putative proteins homologous to HOS and HAS have been identified in the T. cruzi genome. One cds, Tc00.1047053511211.70, was identified as a HAS homologue (named TcCOX15 and TcCox15 for the corresponding protein). Two cds were associated with HOS (Tc00.1047053509601.59 and Tc00.1047053509767.59)

presenting a sequence identity of 98% (named TcCOX10A and TcCOX10B, and TcCox10 A and B for the corresponding protein sequences). The predicted protein sequences [TcCox10 (A and B) and TcCox15] show about 52% and 56% homology and 37% and 41% identity to their S. cerevisiae orthologues, and they are also conserved in other trypanosomatids CH5424802 research buy (Fig. 1). The multiple sequence alignment of HOSs includes the available trypanosomatid putative protoheme IX farnesyltransferase (HOS) and the S. cerevisiae Cox10 protein (Fig. 1a). The residues N196, R212, R216 and H317 (S. cerevisiae numbering), which are involved in the protein’s function (Bestwick et al., 2010), are conserved in trypanosomatid sequences (indicated in Fig. 1a). The multiple sequence alignment of HAS proteins includes the available trypanosomatid putative HAS enzymes and the S. cerevisiae Cox15

protein (Fig. 1b). The alignment shows that residues involved in HAS activity based on studies from HSP assay the Bacillus subtilis CtaA enzyme are also conserved in trypanosomatid sequences (Barros et al., 2001; Hederstedt et al., 2005). www.selleck.co.jp/products/BafilomycinA1.html Figure 1b shows the residues

H169, H245 and H393 from S. cerevisiae numbering, which correspond to CtaA H60, H123 and H216, respectively. Both T. cruzi putative proteins present eight predicted TMs, which is compatible with this type of protein (Fig. 1). The cds for TcCOX10 and TcCOX15 were amplified by PCR using total genomic DNA as the template and introducing a 3′-coding sequence for a 6xHis tag. As TcCOX10 A and B cds show 98% identity, the primers designed recognize both of them equally. The amplified product for TcCOX10 coincided with the Tc00.1047053509601.59 (TcCOX10A) sequence, and is named TcCOX10 and TcCox10 hereafter for the corresponding protein. Both cds (TcCOX10 and TcCOX15) were subcloned into yeast expression vectors and used to transform yeast cells lacking the corresponding genes (Δcox10 and Δcox15). These knockout cells present a respiration-deficient phenotype due to the absence of heme A production and consequently a functionally inactive CcO complex (Nobrega et al., 1990; Glerum et al., 1997). This deficiency impairs the growth in a nonfermentable carbon source such as glycerol–ethanol, but they all can grow in a media containing a fermentable carbon source as glucose. Their respiratory function was restored once TcCOX10A.6xHIS or TcCOX15.6xHIS was expressed in Δcox10 or Δcox15, respectively (Fig. 2a). Both mutants were also transformed with plasmids containing the corresponding S.

The Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), a validat

The Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV), a validated quality-of-life questionnaire containing 35 questions measuring 10 dimensions of health and two scores summarizing mental and physical health states was administered at baseline and at week 40. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded at screening, baseline and weeks 1, 4, 12, 26 and 40. Compliance was recorded daily by EGFR inhibitor patients in a diary, and reported at weeks 4, 12, 26 and 40, supported by counting of vials. Information on smoking habits, alcohol consumption and physical activity was obtained in interviews. Information on antiretroviral therapy, history of therapy, and former and present comorbidity

was extracted from patient files. A surrogate measure for maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was calculated from a dynamic maximal output cycle-ergometer test at baseline and at week 40. During the test, a load of 100 W was applied for 5 min, after which the load was increased by 35 W every 2 minutes until check details exhaustion, with recording of maximal workload, pulse and time. VO2max was calculated as 160+[11.7 × (maximal work load–35 W+35 × time at maximal work load/120)] mL/min [20]. Unadjusted statistical comparisons of baseline variables and AEs between treatment groups were performed using the χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test or

the Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate. Analysis of significant changes from baseline to week 40 within treatment groups was performed using the paired t-test, signed rank test, or McNemar’s test, as appropriate. A comparison of the change in the primary outcome between treatment groups was performed using the t-test, the Kruskal–Wallis test, or analysis Sodium butyrate of variance, applying Tukey’s adjustment for multiple comparisons as appropriate. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. sas software, version 9.1 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 46 HIV-infected patients were enrolled in this study from January 2005 to October 2006 (Fig. 1). Twenty-eight patients

received rhGH and 18 patients received placebo. The clinical characteristics of the patients are presented in Table 1. Patients in the two study groups did not differ significantly in any baseline parameter. In the GH group, 24 patients completed the study and were included in the analysis, and four patients withdrew form the study: one following the visit at week 4, and three following the visit at week 12. Two patients withdrew because of practical problems with implementing the injections in daily life; the other two withdrew because of arthralgias of intensity not acceptable to the patients, even after reduction of the study drug dose. The arthralgias resolved after stopping the study treatment. In the placebo group, all 18 patients completed the study.

“The in silico reconstruction of metabolic networks has be

“The in silico reconstruction of metabolic networks has become an effective and useful systems biology approach to predict and explain many different cellular phenotypes.

click here When simulation outputs do not match experimental data, the source of the inconsistency can often be traced to incomplete biological information that is consequently not captured in the model. To address this problem, general approaches continue to be needed that can suggest experimentally testable hypotheses to reconcile inconsistencies between simulation and experimental data. Here, we present such an approach that focuses specifically on correcting cases in which experimental data show a particular gene to be essential but model simulations do not. We use metabolic models to predict efficient compensatory pathways, after which cloning and overexpression of these Ganetespib concentration pathways are performed to investigate whether they restore growth and to help determine why these compensatory pathways are not active in mutant cells. We demonstrate this

technique for a ppc knockout of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; the inability of cells to route flux through the glyoxylate shunt when ppc is removed was correctly identified by our approach as the cause of the discrepancy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of our approach to drive biological discovery while simultaneously refining metabolic network reconstructions. “
“Chlorimuron-ethyl, ethyl-2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-chloro-pyrimidin-2-yl)amino]carbonyl]amino]

sulfonyl]benzoate, is used as a pre- and postemergence herbicide for the control of important broadleaved weeds in soybean and maize. Due to its phytotoxicity to rotation crops, concerns regarding chlorimuron contamination of soil and water have been raised. Although it is degraded in the agricultural environment primarily via pH- and temperature-dependent chemical hydrolysis, microbial transformation also has an important role. Fungi such as Fusarium and Alternaria are unable to survive in artificial media containing chlorimuron-ethyl at 25 mg L−1. However, Aspergillus niger survived in minimal broth containing chlorimuron at 2 mg mL−1. Aspergillus Histone demethylase niger degraded the herbicide to harvest energy through two major routes of degradation. One route involves the cleavage of the sulfonylurea bridge, resulting in the formation of two major metabolites, namely ethyl-2-aminosulfonylbenzoate (I) and 4-methoxy-6-chloro-2-amino-pyrimidine (II). The other route is the cleavage of sulfonylamide linkage, which generates the metabolite N-(4-methoxy-6-chloropyrimidin-2-yl) urea (III). Two other metabolites, saccharin (IV) and N-methyl saccharin (V), formed from metabolite II, were also identified. A metabolic pathway for the degradation of chlorimuron-ethyl by A. niger has been proposed.

graminearum homolog of A nidulansApsB The functions of FgApsB w

graminearum homolog of A. nidulansApsB. The functions of FgApsB were evaluated by constructing a deletion mutant of FgApsB, designated ΔFgApsB-28. Conidiation and mycelial growth rate are reduced in ΔFgApsB-28. The hyphae of ΔFgApsB-28 are thinner than those of the wild type and have a

different branching angle. ΔFgApsB-28 exhibited reduced aerial hyphae formation, but increased production of rubrofusarin. Whereas nuclei are evenly distributed in germ tubes and hyphae of the wild type, they are clustered and irregularly distributed in ΔFgApsB-28. The mutant exhibited increased resistance to cell wall-damaging agents, but reduced virulence on flowering wheat heads, which Alisertib mw is consistent with its reduced production of the toxin deoxynivalenol. All of the defects in ΔFgApsB-28 were restored by genetic complementation with the parental FgApsB gene. Taken together, the results indicate

that FgApsB is important for vegetative differentiation, asexual development, nuclear migration, and virulence in F. graminearum. “
“The formation of nonspecific ion channels by small oligomeric amyloid intermediates is toxic to the host’s cellular membranes. Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) are major virulence factors of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. We have previously reported the buy Ivacaftor crystal structure of TDH tetramer with the central channel. We have also identified the molecular mechanism underlying the paradoxical responses to heat treatment of TDH, known as the Arrhenius Glycogen branching enzyme effect, which is the reversible amyloidogenic property. In the present report, we describe the biophysical properties of TRH, which displays 67% amino acid similarity with TDH. Molecular modeling provided a good fit of the overall structure of TDH and TRH. Size-exclusion chromatography, ultracentrifugation, and transmission electron microscopy revealed that TRH formed tetramer in solution. These toxins showed similar hemolytic activity on red blood cells. However, TRH had less amyloid-like structure than TDH analyzed by thioflavin T-binding assay

and far-UV circular dichroism spectra. These data indicated that amyloidogenicity upon heating is not essential for the membrane disruption of erythrocytes, but the maintenance of tetrameric structure is indispensable for the hemolytic activity of the TDH and TRH. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a gram-negative marine bacterium recognized as a major cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis around the world. Wound infections, septicemia, and other infections are also caused occasionally by V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks (Blake et al., 1980; Daniels et al., 2000). Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and its homolog TRH are the major virulence factors of this microorganism (Honda et al., 1980, 1988; Joseph et al., 1982; Shirai et al., 1990).

3) Thus, ydbK is needed for superoxide resistance upon growth

3). Thus, ydbK is needed for superoxide resistance upon growth

on minimal media but ompN is not. In a second attempt to investigate the ompN function, we then hypothesized that OmpN may play a role in MDR because ompN overexpression was initially found for the MDR mutant NorE5. To assess its function, the ompN gene was cloned into a pUC19 derivative multicopy vector and transformed into PS5 (P-O12). The susceptibility profile of strains PS5, P-O12, and P-9817 (PS5 carrying the vector alone) was assayed for several unrelated antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, erythromycin, trimethoprim, and ceftriaxone). Results showed no significant difference between the strains tested (data not shown). Moreover, the ompN and ydbK mutants (M6131, M6135, and M6133, M6137, respectively) as well as the parental learn more strains (GC4468 and M5950) were similarly tested in MH or M9 agar plates Everolimus despite no significant difference being detected (data not shown). Altogether, these results show no role for this two-gene operon in conferring the MDR phenotype as tested here. In summary, this study has shown that ydbK and ompN are coexpressed in the same mRNA transcript and coordinately activated by SoxS. This activation is exerted on the promoter upstream

of the ydbK gene and presumably results from an indirect effect. Nonetheless, the ydbK gene but not ompN showed a function related to superoxide resistance (only when growing on minimal media), whereas neither function was needed for antimicrobial resistance. Thus, further studies are required to better characterize the ompN function. We wish to thank B. Demple for kindly providing the strains GC4468 and JTG936 and M. M. Tavío for providing the PS5 and NorE5 strains. This study has been supported by the Generalitat de Catalunya, Departament d’Universitats, Recerca i Societat de la Informació

(2009 SGR 1256), by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Network for the Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RE06/0008), by the European Community (TROCAR contract HEALTH-F3-2008-223031) and by the Intramural Research Program of the NIDDK, National Institutes of Health. A.F. is sponsored by the Barcelona Institute ADAMTS5 for Global Health (ISGlobal). “
“A protein glycosylation system related to that for protein mannosylation in yeast is present in many actinomycetes. This system involves polyprenyl phosphate mannose synthase (Ppm), protein mannosyl transferase (Pmt), and lipoprotein N-acyl transferase (Lnt). In this study, we obtained a series of mutants in the ppm (sco1423), lnt1 (sco1014), and pmt (sco3154) genes of Streptomyces coelicolor, which encode Ppm, Lnt1, and Pmt, to analyze their requirement for glycosylation of the heterologously expressed Apa glycoprotein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

The respondents were those who were within certain provider netwo

The respondents were those who were within certain provider networks, and self-selected to complete the survey and, therefore, may not be reflective all deployed providers. No information on the number and type of providers who chose not to complete the survey were obtained. As a web-based survey, many frontline providers may not have had online computer access, although over one third reported being in Iraq at the time of the survey. Furthermore, the validity of the instrument used to measure knowledge of TD was not formally assessed, although it was developed

www.selleckchem.com/products/PF-2341066.html from a previously published survey and was pilot tested with a limited number of each provider type.9 Although there was anonymity in the survey, providers may not have accurately described what they most often do in a scenario similar to the ones described. The providers may have selected the choice that they felt was the most “correct” even though it is not what they tended to do in practice due to situational influences such as pressure from the patient for their preferred treatment. Also, the multiple response categories in various scenarios may have led to confusion as to the definitions of phases of TD, causing providers to choose incorrect management responses.

In addition, with the AZD3965 nmr general public health concern of increasing antibiotic resistance and the drive to decrease unnecessary antibiotic use within the US, many providers

may have biased their response toward less antibiotic use when this is not an adequate reflection of their actual practice. However, the results were generally concordant with the prior survey of Army physician assistants and information regarding specific treatments provided to troops who had sought care for treatment of diarrhea during recent deployments.1,9 Despite these study limitations the lack of knowledge that the providers displayed toward TD epidemiology was evident and there is room for improvement. This study may provide a Carbohydrate novel approach on how to query providers on targeting problem areas and where to focus education for TD. Training which focuses specifically on the deficiencies identified by this study may enhance the management and treatment of TD. The Department of Defense may benefit from actively disseminating resources on TD management and treatment, as well as further developing evidenced-based guidelines as new therapies and consensus recommendations emerge. These measures need to be implemented to ensure that frontline providers have proper training to diagnose and treat TD and continue to preserve the fighting strength of military personnel. The authors state they have no conflicts of interest to declare. “
“Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease affecting over 200 million individuals, with the majority of those affected in Africa.

This noncognitive-based algorithm should prove useful to identify

This noncognitive-based algorithm should prove useful to identify HIV-infected patients with advanced disease at high risk of HAND who require more formal assessment. We propose staged guidelines, using the algorithm, for improved HAND therapeutic management. Future larger, international studies are planned to test the predictive effect of nadir CD4 cell count, hepatitis C virus infection, gender, ethnicity and HIV viral clade. We recommend the use of this first version for HIV-infected Caucasian men with advanced disease. The clinical management of HIV-positive

persons is increasingly complicated in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). One aspect of management that requires extensive training relates to the early identification of neurocognitive complications JNK inhibitor of HIV infection. In many countries the general practitioner or the HIV physician is often the primary patient’s interlocutor

[1]. Without specific screening using procedures that are still relatively lengthy selleckchem or require specific training, especially for interpretation [2], physicians may sometimes overlook patients in need of further neurological evaluation. In the CART era, the prevalence of neurocognitive impairment remains high (up to 50% [3]) and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) has shifted towards a milder clinical presentation [4]. Such a mild clinical presentation can escape detection without formal neurological assessment and neuropsychological testing [5]. HAND, even in its mild form, is independently predictive of death [6] as well as HIV-associated dementia [7]. Short-term outcomes include significant impact on independence in daily activities including employment [8], and perhaps most importantly medication adherence [9]. The availability of a tool that can easily be used to predict HAND is therefore necessary.

Here we propose a screening algorithm for HAND that was developed in a sample of 97 HIV-positive individuals with advanced disease. This algorithm was based on risk factors that have been documented for HAND: age [10], educational achievement [11], plasma viral load [12], previous central nervous system (CNS) HIV-related insult [13], haemoglobin levels [14], HIV infection duration [15], Linifanib (ABT-869) CART CNS penetration characteristics [16] and duration of current CART [17]. The development of the screening algorithm was based on support vector machine (SVM) methodology. Because the aim of our study was to provide a simplified algorithm from a complex set of predictors, SVM was the most appropriate procedure [18]. The SVM has been shown to be extremely robust in solving prediction problems while handling large sets of predictors [18]. It is an alternative to more standard statistical techniques such as logistic regression and in certain situations has been found to be superior to logistic regression for finding a robust fit with fewer predictors [18–21].

The information on the differential

distribution of these

The information on the differential

distribution of these DNA sequences in the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae may contribute to future research on the pathogenic mechanisms of different serotypes, typing-based diagnosis methods, and multivalent vaccines. Porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, which is caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, is an extremely contagious and often fatal respiratory disease (Macinnes & Rosendal, 1988). This disease occurs in the countries that have a swine industry, and it is responsible for enormous economic losses to the swine industry. To date, 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae have been described (Blackall et al., 2002). These serotypes show significant differences

in pathogenicity and immunogenicity (Cruijsen et al., 1995; Jacobsen et al., 1996). Therefore, vaccines raised buy Roxadustat against a specific serotype do not confer protection from infection by other serotypes (Ramjeet et al., 2008). Owing to the limited information on the genetic differences among the serotypes, studies on the immunity mechanisms of different serotypes, typing-based diagnosis, and multivalent genetically engineered vaccines have been significantly hampered. Therefore, the genomic differences among the principal serotypes should be identified and suitably exploited. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 3 show the most selleck products significant variation in ifenprodil pathogenicity (Jacobsen et al., 1996). Serotype 1 is highly virulent, and infection of this serotype is associated with epidemic outbreak, high mortality, and serious lung lesions. However, serotype 3 is considered to be less virulent (Bosse et al., 2002).

Moreover, there are significant differences between the immunogenicities of the two serotypes, and the available vaccines for the two serotypes do not provide cross-protection (Cruijsen et al., 1995; Ramjeet et al., 2008). In this study, we identified the genomic differences between A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1 and 3 by performing representational difference analysis (RDA). This technique has been widely used to analyze genetic differences in bacteria (Lisitsyn & Wigler, 1993; Tinsley & Nassif, 1996), especially in the light of the limited availability of complete genome-sequence data and microarrays (Barcellos et al., 2009; Sack & Baltes, 2009). We identified the distribution of all the identified differential DNA sequences between the 15 serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae strains used for this study are listed in Table 1.