In contrast, both susceptible cultivars showed typically late and tem porary inductions. Our observations for the expressions of UGT and ABC transporter genes Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries in cv. Sumai 3 are fur thermore in accordance with expression patterns previ ously observed for the ABC transporter gene TaPDR1 as well as the UGT gene TaUGT3 in FHB treated spike samples of cv. Wangshuibai. The TaPDR1 gene is a member of the ATP binding cassette protein superfamily and has been identi fied in cv. Wangshuibai due to its strong up regulation upon DON treatment as well as F. graminearum inocu lation. After fungal infection, the relative amount of TaPDR1 transcripts increased in Wangshuibai at 48 hai. The function of TaPDR1 in FHB resistance is pro posed to be DON related because gene expressions were found to peak after 6 to 12 h of DON inoculation and declined slowly thereafter.
In addition, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries a late expression peak was observed for the susceptible cv. Alondra similar to our observations in the susceptible cv. Florence Aurore. The general role of PDR transporters in the resistance to antifungal drugs was first characterized in yeast and a particular function in DON resistance was confirmed based on a yeast mutant Batimastat carrying a knockout variant of the PDR5 transporter gene resulting in a non natural hypersensi tivity to DON. The second analysed transporter gene Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries TaMDR1 was ini tially isolated from wheat root apices as being induced by aluminium toxicity. However, TaMDR1 was up regulation together with TaPDR1 in cv. Wangshuibai and, thus, was supposed to be involved in DON resistance as well.
In fact, our time course qPCR expression data were able to reveal that both genes show similar expres sion profiles upon Fusarium infection in the resistant cul tivars Dream and Sumai 3, respectively. Although genotype specific differ ences were present, the observed similar expression pat terns indicate a possible Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries trichothecene responsive up regulation for TaMDR1 as well. Using nullisomic tetrasomic wheat lines, we have also located the TaMDR1 allele on chromosome 5A where TaPDR1 had already been placed before. These observations may reflect a common mechanism of transcriptional co regulation for both genes. In general, there is accumulating evidence that gene order in eukaryotic genomes is not completely ran dom and that pathogen responsive as well as other genes with similar expression levels tend to be clustered within the same genomic neighbourhoods. In fact, for TaPDR1 it was discovered that the gene expression is not induced by JA, SA and abiotic stress factors but by de creasing concentrations of Al3 and free. This mode of regulation was also reported for the TaMDR1 gene due to its general induction by Al injury in wheat roots.