In such case, different optical fiber sensor signals could be mul

In such case, different optical fiber sensor signals could be multiplexed into a single optical fiber enabling multipoint measurement. Figure 10 UV–vis spectra of the multilayer thin films of 80 bilayers PAH/Stattic solubility dmso PAA-AgNPs (violet, green and orange coloration) in comparison with initial colored PAA-AgNPs solutions. Conclusions In this work, highly stable coloredAgNPs were synthesized using a water-based synthesis route using PAA as capping agent. The weak polyelectrolyte nature of the PAA and the excess of Ag + cations respect to the concentration of reducing agent (DMAB) make possible to achieve nanoparticles with

different sizes, shapes and aggregation states. This yields different coloredAgNPs dispersions (violet, green and orange). Such AgNPs have been successfully incorporated into LbL thin films in TPCA-1 mouse where the adsorption process was carried out that the AgNPs and aggregates (clusters) within the film are maintained, and thus the coloration of the films is also kept.

In order to obtain the proper coloration Small molecule library screening of the thin film, a study about the influence of the number of PAH/PAA-AgNPs bilayers added (10, 20, 30, 40 and 80, respectively), the position of the absorption bands (UV–vis spectra) and the pH value of the weak polyelectrolytes solutions have been performed. A pH value of 7.5 or higher value of the PAA-AgNPs solution is the key to preserve the aggregation state of the AgNPs without any further precipitation or loss of coloration. A better definition of the coloration in the films is observed when a higher number of bilayers (thickness) are added during the LbL assembly (mostly in green color) because of Casein kinase 1 a better entrapment of both initial clusters and nanometric spherical nanoparticles. This is indicative of a higher number of AgNPs or aggregates of specific shape and size that are

incorporated into the multilayer film. In addition, AFM images reveal a low roughness of the resultant colored films which drastically changes with a thermal treatment due a total evaporation of the polymeric chains (PAH and PAA), making possible to appreciate the number of AgNPs incorporated as a function of bilayers added. To our knowledge, this is the first time that colored PAA-AgNPs of different sizes and shapes are synthesized and incorporated later in LbL assemblies preserving the original color of the solutions. Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness CICYT FEDER TEC2010-17805 research grant. The authors express their gratitude to David García-Ros (Universidad de Navarra) for his help with the TEM images. References 1. Abdullayev E, Sakakibara K, Okamoto K, Wei W, Ariga K, Lvov Y: Natural tubule clay template synthesis of silver nanorods for antibacterial composite coating. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2011, 3:4040–4046.CrossRef 2.

The name constitutional NPQ (photophysical

The name constitutional NPQ (photophysical this website decay) suggests that this does not vary significantly

with different irradiances. This is indeed observed in a number of higher plant studies (Ahn et al. 2009; Guadagno et al. 2010). These latter studies also expanded the analysis of the portioning of quantum efficiencies to a better description of the importance of qE, qI and qT in ΦNPQ. Our data clearly show that in the unicellular alga D. tertiolecta, Φf,D varies with irradiance. In the block high light treatment Φf,D is higher in the light than in the darkness, but in the light the variability in Φf,D is limited. However, when the same procedure is followed for the stepwise increase in irradiance Φf,D shows large oscillations, in contrast to the situation described in higher plants. Unfortunately, we were able to find only one study in which energy apportioning was studied in algae. The unicellular microalgae Chlamydomonas raudensis showed variability

in constitutive (or non-regulated) NPQ, which increased as a function of the growth light intensity (Szyszka et al. 2007). Constitutive NPQ also showed variations due to exposure to different growth temperature conditions with variations that do not extend approximately 5% in a higher plant (Hendrickson et al. 2004). Neither of these studies employed the high temporal measurement frequencies that U0126 purchase we used, making it difficult to compare our studies to the literature. Barasertib manufacturer In this study, it can be clearly seen

that Φf,D responds rapidly to various PF conditions in D. tertiolecta. Nevertheless, as Φf,D increases when cells are exposed to sub-saturating PF during a dark–light transition, while other NPQ parameters decrease, it seems reasonable to suggest that Φf,D acts as an important short-term safety valve and can operate independently from other NPQ mechanisms. Further, it seems possible that similar responses operate when cells are exposed to high PF, but have not been detected in this study as response times might be so rapid that they occur between measurements conducted by the measurement protocol (13 s). The rapid, and xanthophyll cycle independent, fraction of qE can act as an efficient ITF2357 mw photoprotective mechanism in algae and might be attributed to PSII reaction centre quenching, whether this is due to charge recombination, direct P680+ quenching, spill-over or conformational changes in the PSII core subunits (Olaiza et al. 1994; Doege et al. 2000; Eisenstadt et al. 2008; Ivanov et al. 2008; Raszewski and Renger 2008). As constitutive thermal dissipation (Φf,D) originates in the PSII core (Ivanov et al. 2008), it can be concluded that D. tertiolecta is capable of rapidly changing PSII reaction core properties to avoid photodamage.

pylori and man co-evolution since the settlement of modern man (a

pylori and man co-evolution since the settlement of modern man (and H. pylori) in Asia, and posterior settlement in American land between 10,000 and 25,000 years ago, when a land bridge (the

Bering Strait) connected Siberia and Alaska during the last ice age [4]. The expression of M. HpyCH4III in African and American strains, but not in the Asian ones, suggests that this MTase was acquired later and that the corresponding strains gained access PS-341 purchase to America in a second wave of migration of African slaves [4]. It should be pointed out that most of the American strains analysed are from South and FG-4592 chemical structure Central American countries, which also experienced human traffic of African origin, although to a smaller extent when Elafibranor in vivo compared with other countries, such as Brazil. FokI’s resistance to cleavage, which in the present study associated with Asian and American strains, has been previously reported for American and Asian strains, but not

European and African [29], which is in agreement with the present study. Likewise, M. Hpy99I and M. Hpy188I associated with the American strains and were first isolated from the strains J99 and J188, also of American origin [18, 61]. Only M. HpyCH4III, which is associated with American strains and not with Asian strains in the present study, was first isolated from a Chinese strain [31]. However, only strains from Singapore where considered in the Asian group, which is a limitation of this study. Nine out of ten of the Singapore strains (strains id. 33, 35-37, 39, 40, 42-43, available at Helicobacter pylori MLST Databases [62]) were common with the study of Falush et al. After the sequence of eight genes (including vacA, which presents allelic diversity) the majority of these strains were assigned to the hspEastAsia subpopulation [5]. This is in accordance with present results, since both studies clearly isolate these strains. For European, American Atorvastatin and African strains, the dimension and diversity of these subgroups is higher, yielding more robust results. It is thought that intra-familiar transmission plays

a more important role in urban families than in rural families, where the horizontal transmission (for instance via non-parental caretakers) is predominant [63]. H. pylori appears to have established a long lasting colonization of its human host [64], probably being transmitted to subsequent human hosts by close human contact, e.g. between family or community members [63, 65], depending on the genetic and social-cultural habits of each population. Our study supports previous reports on the co-evolution of H. pylori and man, in the sense that H. pylori reflects human migrations [3], being transmitted among individuals who have close contact with each other, but are not necessarily family members. The biologic role of R-M systems is not completely understood. It remains an enigma if the increased number of MTases present in the H.

In the 1974′-*s, studies identified that the most common pathophy

In the 1974′-*s, studies identified that the most common pathophysiologic mechanism is an intimal tear with subsequent thrombosis. While the symptoms are generally those of carotid insufficiency, a diagnosis of cervical carotid trauma is seldom made clinically because the entity is confused with intracranial injury [2, 6]. Several laboratory tests and imaging studies are frequently Necrostatin-1 purchase required in the emergency room for the evaluation of trauma. However, imaging exams to identify cervical vessel lesions are not performed routinely during initial trauma care. Angiography is considered the

‘gold standard’ exam for the identification of vascular lesions. The duplex scan has 86% sensitivity, but is limited in its ability to identify carotid artery lesions near the base of the skull. Angiotomography is sensitive enough to identify general anatomical find more lesions, and it could also be useful for identifying vascular lesions. During

initial trauma assessment, computerized tomography is a common diagnostic method [1, 2, 5, 7, 8]. Magnetic resonance angiography has the ability to produce images of the neck and head simultaneously and to detect early cerebral infarction without the use of contrast [1, 5, 8, 9]. In the 1990′s, studies using angiography as a diagnostic method in populations at risk for BCVI demonstrated that these lesions are rare, corresponding to 1% of all blunt Stem Cells inhibitor traumas admitted to hospital. Due to limited experience with BCVI in trauma centers, standardized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these injuries have not been established. Furthermore, the current approach to BCVI classification has not been unanimously accepted. These limitations have restricted the development of a practical, safe, and universal approach to handling BCVI cases [5].

Although BCVI treatment approaches are debated, all current modalities of treatment, whether clinical or endovascular, depend on the clinical situation, the experience of the medical team, and, above all, the exact characterization of the location and severity of the lesion using an appropriate diagnostic method. Objective To evaluate the accuracy of criteria used to recommend angiotomography PJ34 HCl in the diagnosis of cervical BCVI in 100 patients with blunt cervical trauma in the trauma services section of a Brazilian quaternary care hospital. Materials and methods The current study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Analysis of Research Projects – CAPPesq of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo. It is based on data obtained from medical records of patients who suffered blunt trauma and were admitted to the Emergency Department of the Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (HCFMUSP) from July 2006 to December 2008 using clinical and/or radiographic data that indicated a potential risk of BCVI. Inclusion criteria in the current study were designed based on eleven previously published criteria.

The longer

The longer selleck screening library deposition time may also cause an excessive blurring effect of line patterns, increasing the number

of CNTs grown outside the pattern and making the pattern fidelity worse. It is concluded from this experiment that there would be an optimized deposition time for clear pattern boundaries and high density of CNTs in the proposed method, and the excessive deposition of catalytic particles resulted in blurred boundary of CNT pattern and reduced density of the CNTs grown. The gap distance between the Caspase inhibitor substrate and the shadow mask also influenced the density of the deposited catalyst. The nanoparticles spread out when they pass through the patterns of the shadow mask, and the larger the gap is, the more spreading is observed, resulting in a reduction in the density of the particles on the deposited region. To utilize this blurring effect to adjust the density of the grown CNTs, we tilted the shadow mask such that the gap distance between the shadow mask and the substrate changed linearly, as shown in Figure 4a. For this experiment, we used a shadow mask tilted at an angle of 4.76° with respect to the substrate surface, and the gap distance varied linearly from

0 to 4 mm. Figure 4b shows the schematic of the shadow mask pattern used for the CNT line pattern of SEM images shown in Figure 4c. AP26113 The stainless steel mask is the same as the one used in other experiments and has a length and width of 48 mm × 22 mm and 100 μm of thickness. The width of the laser-cut line pattern is 100 μm. Figure 4d,e,f shows the different site densities of CNTs at the positions illustrated in Figure 4c, where the heights of the shadow mask from the substrate were 1.58, 2.08, and 2.16 mm, respectively. As expected, when the distance between the shadow mask and the substrate was increased, the density of CNTs progressively decreased and the line became wider because of the blurring. The CNT line pattern looks broken when viewing the location of (f) in Figure 4c. The reason for the unclear

pattern on the left side of (f) is a reduction of the density of CNTs due to an increase of the blurring effect caused by the receded gap distance between the substrate and the shadow mask. Using this approach, we could gradually vary the density of catalytic nanoparticles and thus gradually change the density Rebamipide of CNTs on a single substrate with a single run of the synthetic process. Figure 4 Density-controlled growth of CNTs using the tilted mask. (a) Schematic image showing control of the density of deposited nanoparticles using the tilted mask. The angle between the mask and the substrate is 4.76°. The (d) to (f) in (a) represent the distances and blurring of the deposited particles at the corresponding positions, (d) to (f) in (c). The distances between the mask and the substrate at points (d) to (f) are 1.58, 2.08, and 2.16 mm, respectively. (b) Schematic of the shadow mask with line pattern.

5 min respectively and was ended by one step of 72°C for 5 min T

5 min respectively and was ended by one step of 72°C for 5 min. The amplified fragment was cleaned

using the Qiagen PCR purification kit (Qiagen Benelux B.V.) and restricted with BamHI and EcoRI. This restricted epsC gene fragment was ligated into BamHI-EcoRI restricted pGEX-6p-3 plasmid to yield pGEX-PG0120. The 1.2 Kb EryF erythromycin resistance cassettes for use in P. gingivalis was amplified from plasmid pEP4351 using primers EryF ClaI F and EryF ClaI R. and after restriction with ClaI this fragment was ligated into the ClaI-restricted pGEX-PG0120 plasmid yielding pΔEpsC. The ScaI-linearized CP673451 nmr pΔEpsC plasmid was used for insertional inactivation of epsC in P. gingivalis strain W83. Complementation of the epsC mutant The 120 bp artificial constitutive CP25 promoter [37] was amplified from plasmid pDM15 [38] using primers CP25 ClaI F and CP25 AscI R. The intact epsC 1.2 Kb gene was amplified from genomic DNA of P. gingivalis strain W83 using primers epsC AscI F and epsC SpeI R. After ligation of these fragments into cloning vector pJET1.2 (Fermentas, GmbH, St. Leon-Rot, Germany) the constructed expression cassette was cut out with XhoI and HindIII and ligated into the GSK2126458 molecular weight SalI and HindIII digested pT-COW shuttle plasmid [39] to yield the complementation construct pT-PG0120. Transformation of P. gingivalis BHI+H/M was inoculated

with P. gingivalis W83 from a 6-day-old blood agar plate. This pre-culture was anaerobically incubated at 37°C for 2 days. 2 ml of the pre-culture was used to inoculate a 100 ml culture. The next day this culture was used to inoculate 2 × 100 ml of fresh

BHI+H/M to an OD690 of 0.2. After six hours of anaerobic incubation at 37°C the cells were harvested by centrifugation in mid-exponential phase. The pellet was washed two times in 20 ml EPB (10% glycerol, 1 mM MgCl2) and after that resuspended in 2 ml of EPB. Aliquots of 200 μl were stored at -80°C and used for electroporation. 200 ng of PstI digested pΔEpsC was added to 200 μl of W83 P. gingivalis cells. The mixture was transferred to a 2 mm electroporation cuvette and electroporated using an Electro Cell Manipulator Temsirolimus research buy 600 (BTX Instrument Division, Holliston, MA, USA; 25 μF, 2.5 kV, 186 Ω). 1 ml of BHI+H/M was added immediately after the pulse. The cells were left for recovery anaerobically at 37°C for 18 hours. The suspension was plated on BA+H/M plates with 5 μg/ml erythromycin for selection of the transformants. The authenticity of the insertional knockout epsC mutants was verified using primer combinations epsC BamHI F × PG0119 R and EryF ClaI F × epsC EcoRI R. Furthermore, using Real-Time PCR, the expression of the downstream gene hup-1 in both W83 and the epsC mutant was monitored using primers hup-1 F and hup-1 R to exclude polar effects. W83 and the epsC mutant were grown till early exponential phase. The cell Seliciclib concentration pellets were collected by centrifugation and resuspended in RLT buffer (Qiagen, Benelux B. V.

The primary objective of this study was to determine the complian

The primary objective of this study was to determine the compliance rate with ATLS protocols in the ED in a Canadian Level I trauma centre, as well as to assess the impact on ATLS compliance with TTL involvement. Secondary objectives included assessing patient outcomes and times to diagnostic imaging. Methods This study was conducted in a Level

I trauma center in Canada. NSC 683864 cost Ethics approval for the study was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Review Board at the University of Alberta. Roscovitine mouse patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified from the Alberta Trauma Registry (ATR) from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥17 years old, Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥12, and patients with injuries check details that occurred <24 hours prior to presentation to the trauma centre. Patients with non-acute injuries (injuries sustained ≥24hrs), drowning, strangulations, missing charts and inter-hospital transfers that bypassed ED assessment were excluded. The ATR collects data prospectively on all trauma patients with an ISS ≥12 who are admitted to one of the ten participating trauma centers in Alberta. Data obtained from the ATR included: date of injury, sex, age, mechanism of injury, discharge status, total length of stay (LOS), ICU (Intensive Care Unit)

LOS, ISS, and revised trauma score (RTS). A retrospective chart review was performed for additional data not collected in the ATR, on the completion of various actions or tasks as per ATLS protocols (see Table 2), as well as time to diagnostic tests, readmission to hospital, and presence or absence of TTL during resuscitation. Readmission rate in C59 concentration this study included all unplanned readmissions to a hospital in Alberta within 60 days of discharge. Criteria for trauma team and/or TTL activation Respiratory distress Hemodynamic instability Focal neurological signs or GCS ≤8 Penetrating torso trauma Multiple casualties Major burn At the discretion of the ED physician or charge

nurse At the time of the study, the core trauma team was composed of the TTL, senior and junior general surgery residents, orthopedic resident, anesthesia resident, along with nursing staff, radiology technicians, and respiratory therapists. Attending surgeons were available within 30 minutes while on-call. Other surgical specialties (neurosurgery, thoracics, vascular), intensivist, as well as hemoatologist were available upon request. The decision to activate the trauma team was based on criteria listed above. In cases where the trauma team was not activated, it was at the discretion of the ED physician in charge to consult the appropriate services. TTLs were multidisciplinary and composed of emergency physicians, general surgeons, and one neurosurgeon. All of the TTLs have ATLS certification, and a strong interest in trauma. Members of the TTL group are involved in ATLS education, quality assurance, and research.

2008), this would allow to have ~100% of the RCs open in the stre

2008), this would allow to have ~100% of the RCs open in the streak-camera experiment described above, even if PSI was reduced at a rate of 4/s. Such a reduction rate can be obtained using 1 μM of PMS, which will not notably quench the fluorescence (Bulychev and Vredenberg 2001). The special spinning cuvette also allows performing transient absorption (Müller et al. 2003; Holzwarth et al. 2006) and TCSPC (Slavov et al. 2008) experiments with nearly all the PSI RCs in open state. Another obvious

solution to lower the fraction of closed RCs is to lower the excitation power. For a very sensitive technique, for example TCSPC, this can still give data with a good signal to noise ratio. However, for the other techniques such as fluorescence up-conversion, this will not be possible, and one might have to settle with measuring PSI with closed AR-13324 in vivo RCs (Kennis et al. 2001). PMS: to add or not to add? Our study shows that the commonly used reducing agent PMS quenches the fluorescence emission of PSI. This effect might be avoided using very low concentrations of PMS (Bulychev and Vredenberg 2001), but under this condition

the P700 reduction rate is also low. Another disadvantage of PMS is its low stability in water. Decomposition of solutions in deionized water takes only hours, while the stability is even lower in neutral JIB04 mw buffers (Sigma Product Information sheet). Thus, during long measurements the actual PMS concentration, and thus the P700 reduction rate, will be lower than expected. The best solution would be to find a stable and fast P700 reducing agent that does not quench chlorophyll fluorescence. In the absence of such a reagent it can be preferable, depending on the goal PIK3C2G of the experiment, to measure PSI with closed RCs as the fluorescence quantum yield and thus the trapping efficiency is only slightly dependent on the P700 oxidative state (Fig. 5). Acknowledgments This study was supported

by the De Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO), Earth and Life Sciences (ALW), through a Vidi grant (to R.C.). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Amunts A, Toporik H, Borovikova A, Nelson N (2010) Structure determination and improved model of plant photosystem I. J Biol Chem 285:3478–3486PubMedCrossRef Bassi R, Simpson D (1987) Chlorophyll-protein complexes of barley photosystem-I. Eur J Biochem 163:221–learn more 230PubMedCrossRef Ben-Shem A, Frolow F, Nelson N (2003) Crystal structure of plant photosystem I. Nature 426:630–635PubMedCrossRef Berthold DA, Babcock GT, Yocum CF (1981) A highly resolved, oxygen-evolving photosystem-II preparation from spinach thylakoid membranes—electron-paramagnetic-res and electron-transport properties.

J Bacteriol 2002,184(19):5457–5467 PubMedCrossRef 41 Roche FM, D

J Bacteriol 2002,184(19):5457–5467.PubMedCrossRef 41. Roche FM, Downer R, Keane F, Speziale P, Park PW, Foster FK228 TJ: The N-terminal A domain of fibronectin-binding proteins A and B promotes adhesion of Staphylococcus

aureus to elastin. J Biol Chem 2004,279(37):38433–38440.PubMedCrossRef Authors’ contributions IS carried out the molecular and biochemical studies, participated in the animal experiment and drafted the manuscript. I-MJ carried out the animal experiments. AT, MB participated in the design and coordination of experiments and contributed to drafting the manuscript. IS, I-MJ and MB read and approved the final version of manuscript, AT read and approved an earlier version prior to his untimely death.”
“Background Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular find more Gram negative bacterium which causes Q fever, an illness with multiple clinical manifestations in its acute presentation, including a flu-like respiratory process that could result in atypical pneumonia, or fever of intermediate duration (FID) with liver involvement. In a low percentage of cases a chronic form of the disease is diagnosed, characterized by an infection

that persists for more than 6 months, more frequently endocarditis, which can be fatal without an appropriate treatment [1]. Its high infectivity, resistance in adverse environmental conditions and aerosol route of transmission make this agent a candidate for intentional release [2], being listed as a category B bioterrorism agent by the USA Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Initial studies tried to correlate specific genotypes (GT) with the chronic and acute forms of the disease. Thus, certain plasmid patterns were claimed to be associated with the disease outcome [3, 4], which was

controversial [5]; also, some isocitrate dehydrogenase types else were associated with chronic disease and a role for this gene in the adaptation of the organism to the intracellular environment was proposed [6], although this association was also challenged by other authors [7]. More recently, different attempts have been made to classify isolates of C. burnetii in different genomic groups (GG). Based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the entire genome, Hendrix et al. [8] resolved 36 isolates of different origin in 6 GG; Jager et al. [9] Anlotinib concentration performed pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in 80 isolates that were classified into 4 GG; a Multispacer Sequence Typing method [10], based on the sequencing of 10 intergenic spacers classified 173 isolates, mainly from chronic disease, into 3 monophyletic groups and 30 GT; later, a reduced MST method was published by Mediannikov et al. [11], targeting 3 spacers in a single PCR, detecting 3 MST GTs; Svraka et al.

Pattern of decline appears not to be age-dependent Fig  4 eGFR ch

Pattern of decline appears not to be age-dependent Fig. 4 eGFR changes in patients followed for more than 5 years Crenolanib mw (n = 36). In 5 patients shown by a red line, the declining curve changed from moderate to rapid during follow up. The change points varied in relation to age or eGFR level. Other patients are shown in blue for easy identification The effects of age on the eGFR and TKV slopes are examined in Table 3. Forty-six patients whose TKV slopes were ATM Kinase Inhibitor supplier measured were divided into younger or older age groups for comparison purposes. Between the two groups, the difference in eGFR was statistically significant but differences in the eGFR slope, 1/Cr slope, TKV or TKV slope were not significant.

Table 3 Comparison of the slopes of eGFR and TKV between the two age groups   Younger group Older group P value Age group (years) 13–41 42–75   Mean age (years) 34 ± 6.4 57 ± 10.5

  Male/female 11/12 7/16   eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 87.0 ± 29.5 55.9 ± 19.7 <0.0001 eGFR EPZ-6438 cell line slope (ml/min/1.73 m2/year) −4.6 ± 7.3 −2.1 ± 3.1 0.1540 eGFR slope/initial eGFR (%/year) −4.2 ± 9.2 −4.4 ± 7.6 0.9640 1/Cr slope (dl/mg/year) −0.06 ± 0.10 −0.03 ± 0.06 0.3876 1/Cr slope/initial 1/Cr × 100 (%/year) −3.0 ± 8.1 −3.8 ± 7.1 0.7535 TKV (ml) 1509.3 ± 874.3 1840.8 ± 1001.2 0.2381 TKV slope (ml/year) 110.2 ± 207.5 63.5 ± 96.0 0.3326 TKV slope/initial TKV (%/year) 7.6 ± 10.3 3.6 ± 6.6 0.1215 Log TKV slope (log ml/year) 0.03 ± 0.04 0.01 ± 0.03 0.1877 Log TKV slope/initial log TKV (%/year) 0.9 ± 1.4 0.4 ± 1.0 0.1580 Forty-six patients whose TKV slopes were measured were divided into younger and older age groups for comparison. Data are the mean ± SD. P values were calculated by Student’s t test The initially measured eGFRs and log-transformed TKV are plotted against age in normotensive and hypertensive patients in Fig. 5a, b, respectively. In both figures, the regression lines for normotensive and

hypertensive patients were not considered to be identical, with different y-intercepts, since there was a significant difference (P < 0.01, F test) in the y-intercept of the two regression lines under the null hypothesis that the y-intercept of the two lines was equal. There was no significant difference (P = 0.6061 in Fig. 5a or P = 0.6079 in Fig. 5b, F test) in the slope of the two lines under the null hypothesis that the slope of the two lines was equal. Fig. 5 a Initially measured eGFRs are plotted against age in normotensive (blue) and hypertensive (red) patients. Regression analysis for normal blood pressure group: y = 151.08 − 1.546x (where y = eGFR and x = age, r = −0.7791, P < 0.0001, n = 70) and that for hypertensive group: y = 132.30 − 1.666x (r = −0.6587, P < 0.0001, n = 158).