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“Chemical interactions play a fundamental role in the ecology of marine foodwebs. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a ubiquitous marine trace gas that acts as a bioactive compound by eliciting foraging ZVADFMK behavior in a range
of marine taxa including the copepod Temora longicornis. Production of DMS can rapidly increase following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Here, we investigated whether grazing-induced DMS elicits an increase in foraging behavior in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. We developed a semi-automated method to quantify the effect of grazing-mediated DMS on the proportion of the time budget tethered females allocate towards slow swimming, typically associated with feeding. The pooled data showed no differences in the proportion of the 25 min time budget allocated towards slow swimming between high (23.6 +/- 9.74%) and low (29.1 +/- 18.33%) DMS treatments. BAY 73-4506 However, there was a high degree of variability between behavioral responses of individual copepods. We discuss the need for more detailed species-specific studies of individual level responses of copepods to chemical signals at different spatial scales to improve our understanding of chemical
interactions between copepods and their prey.”
“Segmented organisms have serially repeated structures  that become specialized in some segments . We show here that the Drosophila corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and trachea have a homologous origin
and can convert into each other. The tracheal epithelial tubes develop from ten trunk placodes [3, 4], and homologous ectodermal cells in the maxilla and labium form the corpora allata and the prothoracic glands. The www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html early endocrine and trachea gene networks are similar, with STAT and Hox genes inducing their activation. The initial invagination of the trachea and the endocrine primordia is identical, but activation of Snail in the glands induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), after which the corpora allata and prothoracic gland primordia coalesce and migrate dorsally, joining the corpora cardiaca to form the ring gland. We propose that the arthropod ectodermal endocrine glands and respiratory organs arose through an extreme process of divergent evolution from a metameric repeated structure.”
“An experimental study was conducted on the preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline niobium boride and carbide composite (NbB2-NbC) in the Mg-B2O3-Nb-C system via mechanochemical method. The thermodynamic appraisal indicated that the reduction and synthesis reactions were highly exothermic and should be self-sustaining. According to the differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, a pre-milling treatment of powder mixture up to 2 h not only reduced the reaction temperature, but also induced a different reaction path.