(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved “
“Chemical inter

(c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chemical interactions play a fundamental role in the ecology of marine foodwebs. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is a ubiquitous marine trace gas that acts as a bioactive compound by eliciting foraging ZVADFMK behavior in a range

of marine taxa including the copepod Temora longicornis. Production of DMS can rapidly increase following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton. Here, we investigated whether grazing-induced DMS elicits an increase in foraging behavior in the copepod Calanus helgolandicus. We developed a semi-automated method to quantify the effect of grazing-mediated DMS on the proportion of the time budget tethered females allocate towards slow swimming, typically associated with feeding. The pooled data showed no differences in the proportion of the 25 min time budget allocated towards slow swimming between high (23.6 +/- 9.74%) and low (29.1 +/- 18.33%) DMS treatments. BAY 73-4506 However, there was a high degree of variability between behavioral responses of individual copepods. We discuss the need for more detailed species-specific studies of individual level responses of copepods to chemical signals at different spatial scales to improve our understanding of chemical

interactions between copepods and their prey.”
“Segmented organisms have serially repeated structures [1] that become specialized in some segments [2]. We show here that the Drosophila corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and trachea have a homologous origin

and can convert into each other. The tracheal epithelial tubes develop from ten trunk placodes [3, 4], and homologous ectodermal cells in the maxilla and labium form the corpora allata and the prothoracic glands. The www.selleckchem.com/products/Vorinostat-saha.html early endocrine and trachea gene networks are similar, with STAT and Hox genes inducing their activation. The initial invagination of the trachea and the endocrine primordia is identical, but activation of Snail in the glands induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), after which the corpora allata and prothoracic gland primordia coalesce and migrate dorsally, joining the corpora cardiaca to form the ring gland. We propose that the arthropod ectodermal endocrine glands and respiratory organs arose through an extreme process of divergent evolution from a metameric repeated structure.”
“An experimental study was conducted on the preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline niobium boride and carbide composite (NbB2-NbC) in the Mg-B2O3-Nb-C system via mechanochemical method. The thermodynamic appraisal indicated that the reduction and synthesis reactions were highly exothermic and should be self-sustaining. According to the differential thermal analysis (DTA) results, a pre-milling treatment of powder mixture up to 2 h not only reduced the reaction temperature, but also induced a different reaction path.

Additionally, adolescents

Additionally, adolescents Lonafarnib rated parents’ sleep and parenting styles.\n\nResults: Adolescents’ and parents’ sleep patterns proved to be correlated. Moreover, mother’s sleep was related to adolescents’ psychological functioning.

However, SEM showed that mother’s sleep influenced adolescents’ sleep not directly, but indirectly, via parenting style and adolescents’ psychological functioning.\n\nConclusions: Sleep patterns of parents and their adolescent children show similarities. Moreover, mother’s poor sleep has a direct impact on parenting style, which in turn affects adolescents’ psychological functioning and sleep. Therefore, sleep problems in adolescents may mirror an unfavorable parenting style and sleep complaints among mothers. These conclusions might usefully inform family counseling and treatment

of adults’ and adolescents’ sleep complaints. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Motor neuronal (MN) degeneration in motor neuron disease (MND) often starts focally before spreading to neighbouring MN populations, suggesting soluble factors may contribute to disease propagation. Whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from MND patients contains such factors has VEGFR inhibitor been difficult to prove. We aimed to determine the effect of glia on the response of MNs to CSF from MND patients. Primary rat spinal MNs grown in mono-culture or cocultured with glia were exposed to CSF from patients (MND-CSF) or controls (Con-CSF) and survival measured by cell counting. In mono-culture both MND-CSF and Con-CSF reduced MN survival with MND-CSF reducing MN survival by less than Con-CSF. In coculture MN survival was unchanged by exposure to MND-CSF Selleckchem 4SC-202 while exposure to Con-CSF improved MN survival. In separate experiments, murine MNs grown in mono-culture and stressed by growth factor withdrawal were partially rescued by the

application of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a trophic factor previously found to be elevated in MND-CSF. Our results suggest that MND-CSF may contain factors harmful to MNs as well as factors protective of MNs, the interplay of which is altered by the presence of glial cells. These preliminary results further emphasize the importance of MN environment to MN health.”
“The presence of photosynthetic organisms on the seafloor may indicate whether oxygen evolution contributes to the bottom water oxygen pool in the hypoxic area of the northern Gulf of Mexico. We sampled 3 stations (depth: 14, 20 and 23 m) 100 km west of the mouth of the Mississippi River over 3 hypoxic annual cycles to determine whether microphytobenthos or settled phytoplankton existed on the sediment surface. Microscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography were used to determine the presence and composition, and to estimate the biomass of microphytobenthos and phytoplankton in surface and bottom waters and sediments.

Methods Data were used from the Nijmegen early RA cohort Presen

Methods. Data were used from the Nijmegen early RA cohort. Presence or absence of anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and erosions were translated into 4 risk profiles: 0, 1, 2, and 3. Joint damage progression was assessed with the Ratingen score, and disease activity with the original Disease Activity Score (DAS) over 3 years. The probability for joint damage progression was calculated for each risk profile and

each DAS category using logistic regression models. The probabilities were translated into personalized disease activity treatment targets. Results. More risk factors at baseline as well as a higher DAS level resulted in a higher probability for joint damage progression in a dose-dependent way. Low DAS corresponded with GDC-0994 datasheet a probability of 0.0, 0.08, 0.20, and 0.58 in patients with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors, respectively. Moderate DAS corresponded with a probability of 0.06 in patients with 0 risk factors and 0.35 with 1 risk factor. High DAS resulted in a probability of 0.50 with no risk factors present at baseline. Conclusion. Presence of anti-CCP, acute-phase response, and erosions at baseline can be used to set individual

treatment targets in RA. In patients without these risk https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jph203.html factors, a moderate DAS as a target is sufficient, while for patients with all 3 risk factors, a low DAS is not strict enough to limit the risk for joint damage.”
“ObjectivesThe aim of this Selleckchem MDV3100 study was to characterize the optical properties of newly developed esthetic coatings for metallic implants and components for an improved peri-implant soft tissue appearance. Material and methodsPig maxillae (n=6) were used for the in vitro color evaluation of coated and uncoated samples. Three different coating systems (Ti-ZrO2, Ti-Al-ZrO2, and Ti-Ag-ZrO2) were deposited on titanium substrates, which exhibited different roughness (polished, machined, and sand-blasted) and interference colors (pink, yellow, and white). Spectrophotometric measurements were made of

samples below three different mucosa thicknesses (1mm, 2mm, and 3mm) and titanium served as negative control. Color difference E was calculated using L, a, and b values for each sample (in total 30 samples). ResultsE values were significantly above the threshold value of 3.70 for sand-blasted Ti and Ti-ZrO2 samples when tested below 1 mm thick soft tissue, hence resulted in a dark appearance of the soft tissues. In contrast, Ti-Al-ZrO2 and Ti-Ag-ZrO2 samples showed significant L values below 1mm, which indicates a brightening of the covering tissue. In general, E values decreased with increasing thickness of the tissue. At 3 mm thick tissue, E values were significantly below 3.70 for Ti-Al-ZrO2 and Ti-Ag-ZrO2 samples. The preferable substrate surface should be machined due increased color brightness, good soft tissue integration and improved adhesion between coating and substrates.

Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass

Exclusion criteria included age less than 18 years, duodenal mass, nodule, or polyp, endoscopic duodenitis, duodenal scalloping, known celiac disease, positive celiac serology, Crohns disease, or history of bone marrow https://www.selleckchem.com/products/s63845.html transplant. Information was collected in a de-identified database with pertinent demographic information including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, and descriptive statistics

were performed. RESULTS: About 300 patients underwent EGD with biopsies of benign appearing or normal appearing duodenal mucosa. The mean age of patients was 44.1 +/- 16.8 years; 189 of 300 (63%) were female. A mean of 4.3 duodenal biopsies were performed in each patient. In the subgroup of patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight BGJ398 clinical trial loss the mean age was 43.4 +/- 16.3 years. Duodenal biopsies performed for an indication that included abdominal pain resulting in 4 new diagnoses (3 celiac disease and 1 giardiasis) for an overall yield of 1.3%. 183 patients with abdominal pain without anemia, diarrhea, or weight loss (out of the total 300 patients) underwent duodenal biopsy of duodenal mucosa resulting in three new diagnoses (two cases of celiac disease and one giardiasis) for a yield of 1.6%. Duodenal biopsies of 19 HIV patients presenting for evaluation of abdominal pain did not reveal any new diagnoses. Information pertaining to new diagnoses is provided. CONCLUSION:

Routine biopsy of normal appearing duodena in patients with abdominal pain should be reserved for those with a high pre-test probability given its low diagnostic yield.”
“The determination of the concentrations of L-amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been used to gain biochemical insight into central nervous system disorders. This paper describes a microwave-assisted derivatization (MAD) method using N,O-bis-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) as a derivatizing agent for determining the concentrations of L-amino acids in human CSF by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry

(GC/MS). PND-1186 in vivo The experimental design used to optimize the conditions showed that the optimal derivatization time was 3 min with a microwave power of 210W. The method showed good performance for the validation parameters. The sensitivity was very good, with limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.01 mu mol L-1 to 4.24 mu mol L-1 and limits of quantification (LOQs) ranging from 0.02 to 7.07 mu mol L-1. The precision, measured using the relative standard deviation (RSD), ranged from 4.12 to 15.59% for intra-day analyses and from 6.36 to 18.71% for inter-day analyses. The coefficients of determination (R-2) were above 0.990 for all amino acids. The optimized and validated method was applied to the determination of amino acid concentrations in human CSF. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The identification of robust lists of molecular biomarkers related to a disease is a fundamental step for early diagnosis and treatment.

The toxicity of these ketone toxins have not been fully character

The toxicity of these ketone toxins have not been fully characterized nor are the pathogenesis and sequelae of poisoning completely understood. The objective of the current study was to characterize and describe the clinical and pathologic changes of rayless

goldenrod toxicity in goats. Fifteen goats were gavaged with rayless goldenrod to obtain benzofuran ketone doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg/day. After 7 treatment days, buy Birinapant the goats were euthanized, necropsied, and tissues were processed for microscopic studies. After 5 or 6 days of treatment, the 40-mg/kg and 60-mg/kg goats were reluctant to move, stood with an erect stance, and became exercise intolerant. They had increased resting heart rate, prolonged recovery following exercise, and increased serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine kinase activities. All treated animals developed skeletal myopathy with dose-related distribution and severity. The goats dosed with 20 mg/kg and higher also developed myocardial degeneration and necrosis. Although skeletal myonecrosis was patchy and widely distributed, the quadriceps femoris was consistently damaged, even in low-dosed animals. Myocardial lesions were most severe in the papillary muscles of 60-mg/kg dosed animals. This indicates

that goats are highly susceptible to rayless goldenrod poisoning, and that the characteristic lesion of poisoning is Sapanisertib skeletal and cardiac

“Purple acid phosphatase (PAP; EC enzymes are metallophosphoesterases that hydrolysis phosphate ester bonds in a wide range of substrates. Twenty-nine PAP-encoding loci have been identified in the Arabidopsis genome, many of which have multiple transcript variants expressed in response to diverse environmental conditions. Having analyzed T-DNA insertion MK-2206 clinical trial mutants, we have provided strong pieces of evidence that AtPAP9 locus encodes at least two types of transcripts, designated as AtPAP9-1 and AtPAP9-2. These transcript variants expressed distinctly during the course of growth in medium containing sufficient phosphate or none. Further histochemical analysis by the use of AtPAP9-1 promoter fused to B-glucuronidase reporter gene indicated the expression of this gene is regulated in a tissue-specific manner. AtPAP9-1 was highly expressed in stipule and vascular tissue, particularly in response to fungal infection. Subcellular localization of AtPAP9-1:green fluorescent fusion protein showed that it must be involved in plasma membrane and cell wall adhesion. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Flixweed (Descurainia Sophia L) is a problematic weed in winter wheat fields in China, which causes great loss of wheat yield. A total of 46 flixweed accessions from winter wheat-planting areas were collected and used for the survey of resistance to tribenuron-methyl and Pro197 mutation diversity.

014) Plexin-A3 decreased significantly with progression towards

014). Plexin-A3 decreased significantly with progression towards invasive cancer (P < 0.045), whereas Plexin-A1 expression was only significantly reduced once invasion had occurred (P = 0.012). Np1 and Np2 were expressed in both endothelial and epithelial/tumour cells. Np2 expression did not change, but Np1 expression significantly increased in the spectrum from hyperplasia to ductal carcinoma in situ (P < 0.035), but decreased with invasive cancer.\n\nConclusion: These data suggest that a decrease in class 3 semaphorin and their plexin receptors have some relationship with disease progression

in ductal breast carcinoma.”
“In this study, CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics were doped with cesium and cerium atoms to possibly improve the electrical properties of these widely used ceramics. www.selleckchem.com/products/pifithrin-alpha.html In all cases, pure phase perovskites were produced where cesium doping enhanced the grain growth and cerium doping produced grain growth inhibition. The cesium doping showed an improvement in loss tangent performance, in contrast

to the cerium doping which showed a negative result. A high dielectric constant >15,000 with a dielectric loss lower than 0.06 was observed for cesium 2.0 mol% doped at high frequencies. These results were related to the change in microstructure and the properties of grain boundary after doping. Sirtuin inhibitor signaling pathway (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“In this work, atmospheric pressure photoionization was investigated for use in characterizing protein palmitoylation, which is a major post-translational modification of membrane proteins. The study focused on native and palmitoylated peptides originating from plasma membrane proteolipids, such as tetraspanins CD9 and CD151. Mass spectrometry experiments were performed using

synchrotron radiation as a tunable UV source that provides optimal energy for photoionization (SR-APPI). In the positive ion mode, intense fragment ions corresponding to a. 6, candy ions were observed. Interestingly, these fragment ions conserved the palmitoyl modification, thus allowing for unambiguous structural characterization of the palmitoylated peptides. In-source fragmentation under APPI conditions offers a unique complement to conventional methods such as MS/MS, and the results demonstrate that APPI is a versatile and promising technique for the in-source characterization of post-translational modifications and top-down proteomics of membrane proteins. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The goal of this study was to determine the application of health belief model in oral health education for 12-year-old children and its effect on oral health behaviors and indexes.

In addition, we identified MCL1a5 as the minimal domain of the pr

In addition, we identified MCL1a5 as the minimal domain of the protein responsible for its membrane-permeabilizing

function both in model membranes and at the mitochondrial level. Our results provide novel mechanistic insight into MCL1 function in the context see more of a membrane milieu and add significantly to a growing body of evidence supporting an active role of mitochondrial membrane lipids in BCL2 protein function.”
“Background: Ghrelin is an acylated peptide hormone mainly secreted from the stomach. When administrated externally it modulates vascular tone mainly through the regulation of autonomic nerve activity. However, the effects of blood pressure (BP) on the production and secretion of ghrelin remain to be clarified.\n\nMethods and Results: We examined the stomach and plasma levels of ghrelin in

spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats after a 4-week-intervention with antihypertensive agents (candesartan-cilexetil [ARB], doxazosin [DZN], metoprolol [MP], reserpine [RES]) to clarify the influence of BP on the secretion of ghrelin. The effect of these agents on ghrelin production and secretion were examined by comparing vehicle-treated controls (WKY-Intact, SHR-Intact). Treatment with the 4 antihypertensive drugs all yielded a significant decline in systolic BP in both SHR and WKY. Under these conditions, significantly lower levels of stomach and plasma ghrelin were detected in WKY treated with ARB (P<0.05), DZN (P<0.05), MP (P<0.05) and RES (P<0.05) compared with WKY-Intact, SRT2104 cell line PRT062607 mw whereas no significant change in the ghrelin levels in the stomach and plasma were detected in SHR under the same treatments.\n\nConclusions: The findings imply that the production and secretion of ghrelin are controlled by the ambient vascular tone and vice versa in normotensive WKY. This inter-relationship between ghrelin and BP seems to be disrupted in SHR. (Circ J 2012; 76: 1423-1429)”
“P>Bacterial flagella play an essential role in the pathogenesis of numerous enteric pathogens. The flagellum is required for motility, colonization, and in some

instances, for the secretion of effector proteins. In contrast to the intensively studied flagella of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, the flagella of Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori and Vibrio cholerae are less well characterized and composed of multiple flagellin subunits. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of flagellin export from the flagellar type III secretion apparatus of C. jejuni. The flagellar filament of C. jejuni is comprised of two flagellins termed FlaA and FlaB. We demonstrate that the amino-termini of FlaA and FlaB determine the length of the flagellum and motility of C. jejuni. We also demonstrate that protein-specific residues in the amino-terminus of FlaA and FlaB dictate export efficiency from the flagellar type III secretion system (T3SS) of Yersinia enterocolitica.


2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: T


2011 Society of Chemical Industry”
“Objective: To investigate if attitudes towards disclosure of prognostic information vary by speciality, previous experience and demographic factors in a general physician population.\n\nMethods: A postal survey among a representative sample of Norwegian physicians across all specialities (N = 1605), using a translated questionnaire previously used to study attitudes towards disclosing GSK3326595 mouse prognostic information among US internists.\n\nResults: A response rate of 70% was obtained after one reminder. 85% of the responders agreed to the helpfulness of an optimistic attitude. A factor analysis revealed three meaningful factors: ‘Prognostic communication is stressful’, ‘Fearing loss of reputation’ and ‘Reinforcement of positive prospects’. In multivariable models significantly more female than male physicians found aspects of prognostication straining (beta = 0.143, p <

0.001). Those more experienced in communication of prognostic information towards end of life were less likely to support using reinforcement of positive prospects (beta = 0.067, p = 0.001).\n\nConclusion: After years of focusing on patient autonomy and open communication between patient and physician many Norwegian physicians display attitudes that might hide the true content of prognostic information from the patients.\n\nPractice implications: Many physicians think they are inadequately PXD101 trained in prognostication and communication of prognostic information. suggesting that increased education and training are needed if patients’ wishes for information on prognosis are to be met in an individualised manner. (c) 2009

Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“An interactive Web-based learning module on the temporal bone BLZ945 purchase has been developed. It shows normal temporal bone anatomy in four imaging planes: axial, coronal, and parallel and perpendicular to the long axis of the petrous bone. After reviewing the normal anatomy, users should be able to identify key imaging features of pathologic conditions of the temporal bone. Children with congenital abnormalities of the temporal bone may present with conductive or sensorineural hearing loss or both and may have a genetic syndrome. Acute otitis media is the most common infection of the temporal bone and is most prevalent among children. Although imaging is unnecessary in uncomplicated otitis media, it is important for evaluation of infectious complications. Classically, temporal bone fractures were described as longitudinal or transverse with respect to the long axis of the petrous bone. However, it is increasingly recognized that many fractures have both longitudinal and transverse components. Patients with temporal bone fractures may have conductive or sensorineural hearing loss in addition to other complications.

After 6 months storage,

After 6 months storage, buy PF-00299804 the

nanodispersion showed unchanged particles size, morphology, crystal state, chemical structure, and dissolution. In vitro dissolution rate indicated that the nanodispersion could significantly enhance the dissolution rate when compared to the commercial available Sporanox capsules. The nanodispersion achieved 70% of drug dissolution in 10 min, whereas the Sporanox capsules only dissolved 20% during the same period.\n\nConclusion: This study demonstrated that high-gravity technique is a promising method for large scale production of nanodispersions to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs.”
“Objective:\n\nThe aim of the present study was to observe the effects of 1.8GHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the protein expression of human lens epithelial cells (hLECs) in vitro.\n\nMethods:\n\nThe hLECs were exposed and sham-exposed to 1.8GHz RF radiation (specific absorption rate (SAR) of 4W/kg) for 2h. After exposure, the proteins extracted from LECs were loaded on the Ettan MDLC system connected

to the LTQ-Orbitrap MS for screening the LY3023414 mw candidate protein biomarkers induced by RF. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the levels of messenger RNA of candidate biomarkers. After the hLECs were exposed to 1.8GHz RF (SAR of 2, 3 and 4W/kg) for 2h, the Western blot assay was utilized to measure the expression levels of the above-screened candidate protein biomarkers.\n\nResults:\n\nThe results of shotgun proteomic analysis indicated that there were eight proteins with differential expression between exposure and sham exposure groups. The results of qRT-PCR showed that there were three genes with expressional differences (valosin containing protein (VCP), ubiquitin specific peptidase 35 (USP35) and signal recognition

particle 68kDa (SRP68)) between exposure and sham exposure groups. The results of Western blot assay exhibited that the expressional levels of VCP and USP35 proteins significantly increased and the expressional level of protein SRP68 significantly decreased in hLECs exposed to 1.8GHz RF radiation (SAR of 3 and 4W/kg) for 2h when compared with the corresponding sham groups (p<0.05).\n\nConclusion:\n\nThe shotgun proteomics P005091 nmr technique can be applied to screen the proteins with differential expression between hLECs exposed to 1.8GHz RF and hLECs sham-exposed to 1.8GHz RF, and three protein biomarkers associated with RF radiation were validated by Western blot assay.”
“Lanthipeptides are a group of posttranslationally modified peptide natural products that contain multiple thioether crosslinks. These crosslinks are formed by dehydration of Ser/Thr residues followed by addition of the thiols of Cys residues to the resulting dehydroamino acids.

In conclusion, EHEC O111 can cause severe illness in children and

In conclusion, EHEC O111 can cause severe illness in children and adults, and the prognosis becomes poorer as the severity of complications increases. Close monitoring including platelet counts and LDH are useful. Once these clinical

parameters change, intensive treatment should be provided to prevent the development of severe complications.”
“Objectives. – To analyse the prevalence of abnormal papsmears in a primary care center and the screening practices. Materials and methods. – Single-center retrospective study on 1,430 FCU performed in 1,251 patients between January 2009 and RG-7112 in vivo December 2011 with analysis of demographic, clinical and epidemiological chararacteristics of the women, and the monitoring www.selleckchem.com/products/p5091-p005091.html of the patients with pathological papsmears. Results. – The study population was predominantly young (under 25), unmarried, nulliparous, and using contraception. Among the 1,244 FCU, nearly 90% of them were interpretable with the junction area interested. Nine percent were pathological with mainly ASC-US and L-SIL (3.5% and 4.5%) with no difference between more and less than 25 years. Two factors were significantly associated with the presence of pathological papsmear: first intercourse before age 14 and smoking more than 10 cigarettes per day. Monitoring of patients with a pathological papsmear showed that 33% of patients had not an appropriate follow-up especially younger patients. Discussion. – To perform papsmear

before 25 years because the patient has associated high risk HPV co-factors does not appear justified by the severity or frequency of cytological lesions, especially as it increases the financial cost and is responsible of potential deleterious actions such as conizations probably excessive among the youngest patients. Personalized monitoring of these patients with a pathological papsmear is required. The French practice recommendations on cervical cancer screening Selleck GSI-IX (first screening at age 25, 26 years cytological control then every 3 years up to 65 years in patients who have or have

had sex) deserve to be applied in young and disadvantaged patients. (C) 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.”
“Endocrine tumors were considered relatively infrequent neoplasms. However, during the last decades, their frequency gradually increased. The use of imaging techniques, guided FNA biopsy, an endoscope camera in the investigation of endocrine lesions, permits early diagnosis. At the histological level, new applications such as non-biotin containing immunohistochemical detection systems, tyramide amplification method, in situ hybridization, FISH, CGH, and other molecular techniques have provided better knowledge on the protein and molecular background. The investigation of somatostatin and dopamine receptors assists targeted therapy of endocrine tumors. Novel treatment modalities have emerged for the management of pituitary and gastroenteropancreatic tumors respectively.