Spiral channel patterns were designed to create a 3 x 3 array of

Spiral channel patterns were designed to create a 3 x 3 array of pressure-sensor pads, which were wrapped around a standard neuroendoscope operating sheath. Pressure readings from the compressed sensor array were translated into a color-coded graphic user interface.

Calibration experiments were conducted, and the sensor was evaluated through cortical compression tests on explanted ovine brain.

Results. The sensing https://www.selleckchem.com/products/jnk-in-8.html endoscope operating sheath was successfully calibrated to detect and display pressures within a range consistent with normal and tissue-threatening compressions.

Conclusions. Force-feedback mechanisms for the neuroendoscopist are critically lacking with contemporary endoscopes. The authors designed a pressure-sensing skin technology for improved pressure feedback during endoscopy as a means for minimizing collateral tissue damage during endoscopy.”
“Introduction: Green, black and pu-erh teas are known to have strong antiradical properties in comparison to other plant raw materials. In

this study fifteen different teas belonging to three types, green, black, and pu-erh tea (five of each kind), were investigated for their antiradical properties. Antiradical activity of extracts and raw materials was measured using DPPH and ABTS(center dot+) radicals.

Material/Methods: The antiradical potential of teas was measured using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS(center dot+) (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt). The TAU(515) and TAU(734) (antiradical activity units) were defined with PX-478 the tests of DPPH and ABTS(center dot+), respectively, and the number of units was calculated per mg of extracts (TAU(515/mg) and TAU(734/mg)) and g of raw materials (TAU(515/g) and TAU(734/g)).

Results/Discussion: When the extracts were investigated, the highest number of antiradical units (TAU(515/mg); TAU(734/mg)) was found per mg of ethyl acetate extract obtained from green tea leaves assayed with DPPH and ABTS(center dot+): 57.7+/-0.8; 106+/-2.0, units respectively. When the number of antiradical

units TAU(515/g) was calculated per 3-MA mw g of raw material, the highest antiradical potential (7601+/-92) was observed for green tea leaves. The greatest TAU(734/g) value (14 303+/-354) was also calculated for green tea leaves. The lowest value of antiradical activity units TAU(515/g) (684+/-30) and TAU(734/g) (1870+/-180) was calculated for pu-erh tea leaves. A high positive correlation was found between the antiradical activity of the raw materials and the content of phenolic compounds in these raw materials.”
“Condensations of aromatic carbo- and heterocyclic ketones and aldehydes in methanol gave new chalcones containing carbazole fragments, 1,3-diaryl(9-R-9H-carbazol-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-ones. Some of the synthesized chalcones reacted with guanidine sulfate to produce 2-amino-4,6-diarylpyrimidines that are promising materials for the design of light emitting diodes.

An association of some key cytokines appears to be essential for

An association of some key cytokines appears to be essential for NOS gene regulation in the immunity of infections. Accumulating evidence indicates that parasitic diseases are commonly associated with elevated production of NO. NO plays a role

in the immunoregulation and it is implicated in the host non-specific defence in a variety of infections. Nevertheless, the functional role of NO and NOS isoforms in the immune responses of host against the majority of parasites is still highly controversial. In the present review, the role of parasitic infections will be discussed in the controversy related to the NO production and iNOS gene expression in different parasites and a variety of experimental models.”
“Background: SNX-5422 supplier Emphasis is increasingly being placed on the monitoring of clinical outcomes for health care providers. Funnel plots have become an increasingly popular graphical methodology used to identify potential outliers. It is assumed that a provider only displaying expected random variation (i.e. ‘in-control’) will fall outside a control limit with a known probability. In reality, the discrete count nature of these data, and the differing methods, can lead to true probabilities quite different from the nominal value. This paper investigates the true probability of an ‘in control’ provider falling outside control limits for the A-1210477 inhibitor Standardised Mortality Ratio (SMR).

Methods: The true probabilities

of an ‘in control’ provider falling outside control limits for the SMR were calculated and compared for three commonly used limits: Wald confidence interval; ‘exact’ confidence interval; probability-based prediction interval.

Results: The probability of falling above the upper limit, or below the lower limit, often varied greatly from the nominal value. This was particularly apparent when there were a small number of expected events: for expected events <= 50 the median probability of an ‘in-control’ click here provider

falling above the upper 95% limit was 0.0301 (Wald), 0.0121 (‘exact’), 0.0201 (prediction).

Conclusions: It is important to understand the properties and probability of being identified as an outlier by each of these different methods to aid the correct identification of poorly performing health care providers. The limits obtained using probability-based prediction limits have the most intuitive interpretation and their properties can be defined a priori. Funnel plot control limits for the SMR should not be based on confidence intervals.”
“We report the case of a 73 year old woman who presented for progressive dyspnea. Her medical history included thyroidectomy 15 years ago, myocardial infarction, recurrent paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and femoral fracture two weeks previously, conservatively treated. Physical examination revealed absent breath sounds in the left hemithorax, up to the apex, and crackles in the right hemithorax.

The cross-talk between melanocytes and keratinocytes should be de

The cross-talk between melanocytes and keratinocytes should be determined in future studies on the pharmacological mechanisms of GSK1210151A mouse clinically effective dermatological drugs acting on the epidermis. (C) 2012 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Aims: There is growing body of evidence that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in development of maternal and fetal complications of diabetic pregnancies. The aim of the present study was to investigate total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total

oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and to reveal the influence of maternal hyperglycemia on these parameters.

Methods: A prospective controlled study was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010. Umbilical cord blood was taken from IDM and controls for TAC and TOS measurement, and OSI was calculated. IDM were divided into two groups, either of

mothers treated with insulin during pregnancy or of those treated with a carbohydrate-restricted diet.

Results: Thirty-six IDM and 14 infants born to non-diabetic mothers were enrolled. Infants of insulin-treated mothers (group 1) and infants of mothers managed with a carbohydrate-restricted diet (group 2) had significantly higher TOS (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively) and OSI (p<0.001 and p=0.001, respectively) levels compared to controls. However, TAC levels were similar in all three groups. Maternal HbA(1c) values were correlated Tubastatin A to TOS (p<0.001, r=0.694) and OSI (p<0.001, r=0.683).

Conclusions: Oxidative stress is increased in IDM, and a significant relation LY2835219 order exists between the degree of maternal hyperglycemia in pregnancy and oxidative stress in the newborn at birth.”

Castleman’s disease is a rare disorder of of lymphoid tissue that

occurs chiefly in the mediastinum and less commonly at other sites, including the retroperitoneum. Few cases of fine needle aspiration (FNA) findings of this lesion have been reported.


A 21-year-old wan presented with left-side abdominal pain of 2 months’ duration. A solid, well-defined pelvic mass measuring 7..2 x 4.3 x 5.3 cm displacing the urinary, bladder and blood vessels was seen on ultrasonography. Ultrasound-guided FNA was performed; smears consisted predominantly of clusters of mature lymphocytes in hemorrhagic background showing crushing tit places and closely intermingled with it distinct population of large follicular dendritic cells. Many clusters were seen traversed by capillary fragments. Cell block preparation showed concentric rings of mature lymphocytes surrounding lymphocyte-poor centers with vascular proliferation and follicular dendritic cells.

SA and TPA are both originated from the interband transition betw

SA and TPA are both originated from the interband transition between the d band and s-p conduction band. The SA possess less occupied density of states in the ground state and less unoccupied density of states in the excited state than that of TPA, so the TPA dominates the nonlinear absorption when the pulse intensity is high, leading to as-observed transition from SA to TPA. The

refraction variation with increase in pulse intensity is attributed to the interband transition of electrons from d band to s-p conduction band in the Pd NPs. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3533738]“
“Purpose: AZD7762 ic50 To systematically examine whether abandoning daily routine chest radiography would adversely affect outcomes, such as mortality and length of stay (LOS), SB203580 in vitro and identify a subgroup in which daily routine chest radiography might be beneficial.

Materials and Methods: This was a meta-analysis of clinical trials that examined the effect of abandoning daily routine chest radiography in adults in intensive care units (ICUs). Studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Biological Abstracts, and CINAHL. The results were expressed as odds

ratios (ORs) or weighted mean difference (WMD) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Eight studies with a total of 7078 patients were identified. A pooled analysis revealed that the elimination of daily routine chest radiography did Immunology & Inflammation inhibitor not affect either hospital or ICU mortality (OR, 1.02;[95% CI: 0.89, 1.17; P = .78 and OR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.76, 1.11; P = .4, respectively). There was no significant difference in ICU LOS (WMD = 0.19 days; 95% CI: -0.13, 0.51; P = .25), hospital LOS (WMD = -0.29 days; 95% CI: -0.71, 0.13; P = .18), and ventilator days (WMD = 0.33 days; 95% CI: -0.12, 0.78; P = .15) between the on-demand and daily routine groups. Regression analyses failed to identify any subgroup in which performing daily routine chest radiography was beneficial.

Conclusion: Systematic but unselective daily routine chest radiography can likely be eliminated without increasing adverse

outcomes in adult patients in ICUs. Further studies are necessary to identify the specific patient population that would benefit from daily routine chest radiographs. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“Rectifying and photoelectronic properties of the La(0.67)Ba(0.33)MnO(3)/SrTiO(3):Nb junctions with the film thickness from d = 0.5 to 30 nm have been systematically studied. It is found that the electronic transport of the junction is dominated by quantum tunneling or thermoionic emission when film thickness is below or above 1 nm. The rectifying ratio and ideality factor, correspondingly, experience a sudden change as film thickness grows from 0.5 to 1 nm and a smooth variation with film thickness above 1 nm. The threshold film thickness for the establishment of a mature depletion layer is therefore 1 nm.

(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:199-204)”
“Purpose of reviewTo

(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;240:199-204)”
“Purpose of reviewTo review the association of pregnancy with the risk of subsequent development of rheumatic autoimmune diseases in women, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma.Recent findingsThere is a small but growing literature

related to the risk of autoimmune rheumatic disease in association with pregnancy history. However, AZD1208 chemical structure results conflict both in terms of the direction and magnitude of risk of disease in relationship to prior pregnancy history. Although anecdotal evidence tends to favor the premise that pregnancy is protective against certain diseases, such as RA, the heterogeneity of results precludes

the ability to confirm an association in either direction. There is indication that time elapsed since pregnancy may influence risk, with the postpartum year being of particular relevance.SummaryTo date, a clear pattern has not emerged regarding pregnancy and the future risk of autoimmune rheumatic diseases. This topic requires greater study, and given the strong female preponderance of these diseases, future research efforts should seek to resolve this important issue.”
“(18)F-Labelled fluoroazomycin arabinoside ([(18)F]FAZA) is a 2-nitroimidazole (azomycin) based PET tracer used extensively in cancer clinics to diagnose tumour hypoxia. The hypoxia-specific uptake and rapid blood Epigenetic inhibitor libraries clearance kinetics of FAZA contribute to good tumor-to-background ratios (T/B ratios) and high image contrast. However, FAZA, an alpha-configuration nucleoside, is not transported by cellular nucleoside transporters. It enters cells only via diffusion, therefore not achieving the high uptake and T/B ratios characteristic

of actively transported radiopharmaceuticals. The present work describes the synthesis, physicochemical properties and preliminary assessment of the radiosensitization properties of two novel azomycin nucleosides, 1-beta-D-(2-deoxy-2-fluoroarabinofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole Roscovitine mouse (beta-2-FAZA) and 1-beta-D-(3-deoxy- 3-fluorolyxofuranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole (beta-3-FAZL) (fluorination yields 60% and 55%, respectively). The tosylated precursors required to synthesize the corresponding F- 18 labeled radiopharmaceuticals are also reported. The partition coefficients (P) for beta-2-FAZA (1.0) and beta-3-FAZL (0.95) were marginally lower than reported for FAZA (1.1). The radiosensitization properties of both these compounds are similar to that of FAZA, with sensitizer enhancement ratios (SER) of similar to 1.8 for HCT-116 cells.”
“In previous work using thin superconducting films as photon detectors it has been assumed implicitly that the quasiparticle yield in proximized superconducting bilayers should be the same as for a pure superconducting layer with the same energy gap.

Records were excluded if dogs received anticholinergics or vasoac

Records were excluded if dogs received anticholinergics or vasoactive amines. Anesthesia was induced with fentanyl followed by propofol, both intravenously. After orotracheal intubation, Sapanisertib all dogs’ lungs were mechanically ventilated. Anesthesia was maintained with infusion of fentanyl and propofol (DMD group) or isoflurane in oxygen (control group). Pure O(2) was provided to the DMD group. Cisatracurium (0.1 mg.kg(-1)) was administered intravenously to all dogs. Five-min interval recordings of HR and systolic blood pressures (SAP) were obtained.


Immediately after the administration of cisatracurium, absolute values for HR and SAP significantly increased by 78.3 +/- 37.0 b.min(-1) (115.4 +/- 64.9%) and 33.0 +/- 28.3 mmHg (33.5 +/- 31.2%), respectively, in all DMD dogs and remained significantly increased for 10 and 30 min, respectively. Dogs in the control group did not show significant increases in HR or SAP after cisatracurium administration. All dogs recovered from anesthesia without complications.


CA4P cost In this report, increases in HR and SAP could be associated with the administration of cisatracurium in individuals affected with X-linked muscular dystrophy. These cardiovascular changes deserve further investigation.”
“A direct observation of the in-plane domain structure of the writer pole of a perpendicular recording head was performed by electron holography in order to investigate the cause of pole erasure due to the instability of the domain wall behavior. The instability of domain structure of the writer pole generated a stray field on the air bearing surface of the writer pole. The domain wall trapping at the pole tip was found quite effective to form a stable domain structure in the remanent state, SN-38 datasheet and it reflected domain wall energy change and initial domain structure of the writer pole. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.3074208]“
“A versatile method to fabricate a multilayer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

device with micropillar arrays within the inner layer is reported. The method includes an inexpensive but repeatable approach for PDMS lamination at high compressive force to achieve high yield of pillar molding and transfer to a temporary carrier. The process also enables micropillar-containing thin films to be used as the inner layer of PDMS devices integrated with polymer membranes. A microfluidic cell culture device was demonstrated which included multiple vertically stacked flow channels and a pillar array serving as a cage for a collagen hydrogel. The functionality of the multilayer device was demonstrated by culturing collagen-embedded fibroblasts under interstitial flow through the three-dimensional scaffold. The fabrication methods described in this paper can find applications in a variety of devices, particularly for organ-on-chip applications.

Increasing the filler content of POM/TD32 4 and POM/TD130 (130 nm

Increasing the filler content of POM/TD32.4 and POM/TD130 (130 nm) nanocomposites resulted in a decrease in tensile strength. The Young modulus, stress at break and impact strength of TiO2 nanocomposite did not improve with increasing filler contents, in opposition to the better agglomeration conditions of ZnO nanocomposite even at lower particle sizes. Because of agglomeration, selleck screening library the POM/TD32.4 nanocomposites had lower mechanical properties and lower degradation temperature than the POM/TD130 ones. The sizes of nanoparticles determined the agglomeration, but however, the agglomeration also depended on the type of nanoparticles,

even when using the same matrix (POM) and the same mixing method. TiO2 nanoparticles were more difficult find more to mix and were more agglomerated in the POM matrix as compared to ZnO nanoparticles, regardless of the size of the nanoparticles. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 123: 3217-3224, 2012″
“This manuscript presents the first observation of the space-charge-limited current (SCLC) conduction mechanism in individual heterostructure nanowires (NWs). This effect is exploited to extract size-dependent carrier densities and to demonstrate surface-dominated behavior for these technologically relevant nanostructures. Mobile carrier densities were shown to increase from 2.5 x 10(16) to 5.6 x 10(17) cm(-3), as

NW width decreased from 200 to 50 nm. This size-dependent behavior is a consequence of the increasing influence of near-surface confined carriers as widths decrease. Traps impact the SCLC response and were characterized as an exponential band edge tail with an average characteristic energy of 75 meV. In addition to the specific materials properties extracted, these results

further demonstrate the tendency for low-dimensional materials (1D NWs) to exhibit SCLC at much lower injection fluxes compared to their higher dimensional (2D heterostructure field-effect transistors) counterparts. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3622145]“
“Clusterin is a heterodimeric sulfated glycoprotein and plays a role in many different types of cancer as a cell survival factor and helps cancerous cells to evade stress-induced apoptosis. To investigate whether the regulation of PD173074 clusterin expression is involved in the mechanism of anticancer agent, we studied the effect of tamoxifen on clusterin expression in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Treatment of PC-3 cells with tamoxifen reduced cellular proliferation. Western blot analyses showed that treatment with tamoxifen suppressed clusterin expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Transfection with clusterin siRNA plasmid showed that clusterin is required for PC-3 cell survival. We found that tamoxifen resulted in a rapid decrease in the phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473 leading to prevent kinase activity.

Modelling results suggest that lowering Canadian sodium intake to

Modelling results suggest that lowering Canadian sodium intake to near recommended levels would reduce hypertension prevalence by approximately 30%, prevent approximately 15,500 cardiovascular events per year, and yield savings of approximately CAD$2 billion per year.

These estimates do not include the potential additional benefits of long-term sodium restriction on BP, nor BP-independent effects. Actions to facilitate lower sodium intakes in Canada included dietary intake recommendations, mandatory nutritional labelling, a national intake survey, and recommendations of a Government-appointed Sodium Working Group (SWG) that aims to reduce Canadian intakes below 2300 mg per day by 2016. SWG strategies included GSK2879552 voluntary reductions in sodium added by food industries, increased education, and research. However, the SWG has recently been disbanded, its responsibilities passed to a Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee and to a new Food Regulatory Advisory Committee, and the significance for implementing recommendations is unclear. Health care practitioners are encouraged to promote lower dietary sodium intake in their patients selleck chemicals and to advocate

continued Government efforts to reduce the sodium content of the Canadian food supply.”
“Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae was identified during an investigation of a febrile outbreak in northwestern Peru (2002). DNA sequencing from two ticks (Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes boliviensis) collected during the investigation revealed a novel Rickettsia agent with similarity to the spotted fever group rickettsiae. Since then, Candidatus R.similar to andeanae has been detected https://www.selleckchem.com/products/tariquidar.html in A.similar to maculatum

ticks collected in the southeastern and southcentral United States, Argentina, and Peru. To date, Candidatus R.similar to andeanae has not been successfully cultivated in the laboratory. We present evidence for the continuous cultivation in three cell lines of Candidatus R.similar to andeanae isolated from an A.similar to maculatum tick (Portsmouth, Virginia).”
“Purpose: To assess the frequency of hyperintensity in the dentate nucleus on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and to establish correlations between such hyperintensity and clinical factors, including a history of brain irradiation.

Materials and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board, and each patient provided written informed consent. Three hundred sixty-two patients (164 men, 198 women; mean age, 62 years) were evaluated. Unenhanced T1-weighted MR images were obtained by using a spin-echo sequence at 3.0 T.

Many bidirectional interactions of the gut microbiota, including

Many bidirectional interactions of the gut microbiota, including with food, bile and the intestinal epithelium, have been identified. These interactions might contribute to the distinct steps in the progression from lean to obese states, and to steatosis, steatohepatitis and eventually fibrosis. The predominant steps are efficient caloric extraction from

the diet, intestinal epithelial damage and greater entry of bacterial components into the portal circulation. These steps result in activation of the innate immune system, liver inflammation and fibrosis. Fortunately, therapeutic Lonafarnib clinical trial interventions might not require a full understanding of these complex interactions. Although antibiotics are too unselective SU5402 Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor in their action, probiotics have shown efficacy in reversing obesity and NASH in experimental systems, and are under investigation in humans.”

measurement criteria for vertebral artery origin (VAO) stenosis have not yet been established. We propose such criteria and report on interrater agreement using two measurement methods in a series of patients referred for endovascular therapy. Three experienced angiography raters independently reviewed magnified cerebral angiograms. The formula [1 2 (Ds/Dn)] x 100 was used, where Ds is the diameter of the most stenotic portion of the lesion and Dn is normal vessel diameter. The first measurement method allows unrestricted use of the V1 segment for measurement of normal diameter. In the second method, normal diameter is measured in the first portion of the V2 segment with exclusion of any region of poststenotic dilatation. Ten consecutive patients with VAO stenosis were reviewed. The mean degree of stenosis was 71.9% (standard deviation, +/- 10.7%) with the first method and 66.9% +/- 10.6% with the second method. Average interrater agreement was 80% with the first method and 87% with the second method. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) demonstrated greater interrater agreement when the tortuous proximal V1 segment was excluded

in normal diameter 4SC-202 measurement (ICC = 0.7750) compared with the unrestricted use of the V1 segment for normal diameter (ICC = 0.7256). The kappa statistic was the best among the 3 raters with 10% variance when the tortuous V1 segment was excluded, at 0.73 (overall agreement, 87%). Our findings indicate that excluding the tortuous V1 portion when measuring normal diameter improves interrater agreement and simplifies the measurement of high-grade VAO stenosis.”
“Complex congenital heart diseases with abnormal formation of the aorticopulmonary septum are also associated with defective large artery elastogenesis. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that carotid artery elastic function was impaired in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (ToF). The study included 45 Fallot-patients (male: female 27: 18; age 21.0 +/- 11.

“The circadian system of plants regulates a wide range of

“The circadian system of plants regulates a wide range of rhythmic physiological and cellular output processes with a period of about 24 h. The rhythms are generated by an oscillator mechanism that, in Arabidopsis, consists of interlocking feedback loops of several components including CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED MAPK inhibitor 1 (CCA1), LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY), TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1 (TOC1) and CCA1 HIKING EXPEDITION (CHE). Over recent years, researchers have gained a detailed picture of the clock mechanism

at the resolution of the whole plant and several tissue types, but little information is known about the specificities of the clock mechanism at the level of individual cells. In this paper we have addressed the question of 17DMAG chemical structure cell-type-specific differences in circadian systems. Using transgenic Arabidopsis plants with fluorescence-tagged CCA1 to measure rhythmicity in individual leaf cells in intact living plants, we showed that stomatal guard cells have a different period from surrounding epidermal and mesophyll leaf cells. By comparing transcript levels in guard cells with whole plants, we identified differences in the expression of some oscillator genes that may underlie cell-specific differences in clock properties. In addition, we demonstrated that the oscillators of individual

cells in the leaf are robust, but become partially desynchronized in constant conditions. Taken together our results suggest that, at EPZ5676 supplier the level of individual cells, there are

differences in the canonical oscillator mechanism that has been described for plants.”
“In this work, the experimental data of the compaction behavior of jute woven fabrics obtained in a previous work were modeled. A brief description of the current theoretical models found in literature is presented. It was concluded that these theoretical models cannot be used on natural fiber fabrics due to the vast differences in fiber structure and fibers assembly among natural and synthetic fibers. Therefore, two empirical models commonly seen in literature were used to fit the experimental data: the power law and the exponential function. In addition, a novel model was proposed, which represented much better the compaction behavior of the fabrics. The stress relaxation was also modeled using three empirical models: a power law, a first-order exponential function, and a second-order exponential function. The two-parameter power law model fitted the relaxation curve as well as the five-parameter exponential function. On the other hand, the first-order exponential function could not represent properly the relaxation stage. (c) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.