Material examined: JAPAN, Suruya, Shizuoka, on the leaves of Oryza sativa, Sept. 1907 (S nr F9572, F9573, lectotype). Notes Morphology Phaeosphaeria was introduced by Miyake (1909), but was regarded as a synonym of Leptosphaeria for a long time. Holm (1957), however, reinstated Phaeosphaeria, assigning some Leptosphaeria sensu lato species with relatively small ascomata and which occurred on monocotyledons to Phaeosphaeria. Although this division GNS-1480 based on host range is considered unnatural by some workers (Dennis 1978; Sivanesan 1984), it has been widely accepted (von Arx and Müller 1975; Eriksson 1967a; Hedjaroude 1969; Shoemaker and
Babcock 1989b). Eriksson (1981) further revised the generic concept of Phaeosphaeria by including dictyosporous taxa as well as some perisporium taxa. Phaeosphaeria was further divided into six subgenera, i.e. Ovispora, Fusispora, Phaeosphaeria, Spathispora, Vagispora
and Sicispora, based on differences in ascospore shape and the number of septa (Shoemaker and Babcock 1989b). Phaeosphaeria species are usually associated or parasitic on annual monocots, such as Cyperaceae, PKC412 Juncaceae or Poaceae but have also been recorded as saprobes and on dicotyledons (e.g. P. viridella and P. vagans). Phylogenetic study The separation of Phaeosphaeria from Leptosphaeria sensu stricto was supported by phylogenetic studies based on ITS sequences. The peridium structure, pseudoparenchymatous cells in Phaeosphaeria versus scleroplectenchymatous cells in Leptosphaeria had phylogenetic significance in the distinction
between these Avelestat (AZD9668) two genera, while the subgenus division was not supported by the phylogenetic results (Câmara et al. 2002; Morales et al. 1995). The familial status of both Phaeosphaeriaceae and Leptosphaeriaceae was verified by multigene phylogenetic analysis (Schoch et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009a). Concluding remarks Phaeosphaeria was originally thought to be a synonym of Leptosphaeria (Müller 1950; Munk 1957), however, molecular analysis has shown these two see more genera differ with Phaeosphaeria having pseudoparenchymatous peridium, Stagonospora-like anamorph and mostly monocotyledonous hosts and Leptosphaeria having scleroplectenchymatous peridium, Phoma-like anamorph and mostly dicotyledonous hosts (Câmara et al. 2002; Schoch et al. 2009; Shoemaker and Babcock 1989b; Zhang et al. 2009a). It is now recognized that Phaeosphaeria is the type genus of Phaeosphaeriaceae and related genera include Entodesmium and Setomelanomma and probably Ophiosphaerella (Schoch et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2009a). Paraphaeosphaeria was introduced as an off-shoot of Phaeosphaeria and differs in ascospore shape and septation as well as anamorphic stages (Eriksson 1967a, b). Similarly, Nodulosphaeria was recently reinstated and differs from Phaeosphaeria because of setae over the apex as well as its ascospores with swelling supramedian cells and terminal appendages (Holm 1957, 1961).