aureus isolates with lukS gene was a vital step for appropriate t

aureus isolates with lukS gene was a vital step for appropriate therapy and controlling the dissemination of this potentially virulent pathogen. In Malaysia, the presence of MRSA has been reported [37, 38], and cases of MRSA infection and colonization have also been reported in the neighboring countries of Singapore and Indonesia [32, 33]. The presented pentaplex PCR assay is robust and practicable Selleck OICR-9429 for culture

confirmation purposes. However, the 104 CFU/mL analytical sensitivity of this current pentaplex PCR assay might not sensitive enough for the direct testing of clinical specimens. A previous study by Gosbell et al, in 2001 confirmed that MRSA-screen test gave excellent sensitivity and specificity for MRSA detection, and was quicker and cheaper than PCR [39], while other study showed lower sensitivity and specificity in detecting methicillin resistance in CoNS [40] and couldn’t Selleckchem Target Selective Inhibitor Library identify neither PVL toxin encoding gene among staphylococci nor differentiate between CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. Hence the PCR assay developed in the

present study will be useful in the epidemiological screening of MRSA patients or carriers. We are currently evaluating this assay for screening for MRSA carriage in Malaysia. Conclusion The PCR assay was able to detect four genes that are essential for the identification of S. aureus and its methicillin-resistant genotypes simultaneously in a single test within 4 h. The built-in internal control in this assay prevented false-negative results. The diagnostic accuracy was determined using 230 clinical specimens and showed 97.6% of sensitivity and 99.3% of specificity in detecting methicillin-resistant staphylococci. Hence, this test can be used as an effective diagnostic and surveillance tool to monitor the spread and emergence of MRSA. Methods Study design This was a cross-sectional study in which Fossariinae the retrospective sample size was calculated by using PS software (Dupont & Plummer, 1997) using Dichotomous based on the sensitivity of the E-test and PCR at 100% and 98%

respectively [41, 42]. The Research and Ethics Committee, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, approved the study protocol. Bacterial strains and clinical specimens The Staphylococcus spp. reference strains and other bacteria used in this study are listed in Table 1. A total of 230 retrospective Staphylococcus spp. that were isolated from routine clinical specimens obtained from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, from March 2006 to February 2007, were used in this study. Among the 230 clinical isolates, 86 were from nasal samples, 45 from blood samples, 34 from pus samples, 19 each from body fluid, wounds and CSF samples, and eight from urine samples. Screening of Staphylococcus spp. from clinical specimens by the 17-AAG solubility dmso conventional method The clinical isolates were inoculated onto Columbia blood agar (Merck, NJ, USA) plates with 5% sheep blood for 24 h at 37°C.

Bars represent the means ± SE (n = 6) *p < 0 05

C contr

Bars represent the means ± SE (n = 6). *p < 0.05.

C control, SN sciatic neurectomy, L loading Loading reversed the sciatic neurectomy-induced increases in the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes in the cortical bone of both the proximal and distal sites (Fig. 3a, b) and in the trabecular bone of both the primary and secondary spongiosa (Fig. 4a, b). However, loading reduced the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes to a level FK228 solubility dmso significantly lower than that in controls only in the proximal cortical region and the secondary spongiosa. Discussion In the present study, we used the mouse unilateral tibia axial loading I-BET151 solubility dmso model [24, 25] to assess the effects of loading on both cortical and trabecular bone compartments in vivo. In cortical bone, short periods of dynamic loading, in addition to that engendered by habitual physical activity, MAPK inhibitor were associated with decreased osteocyte sclerostin staining and increased bone formation and bone volume at the proximal but not the distal site. In contrast, reduced loading due to sciatic neurectomy resulted in an increase in the percentage of sclerostin-positive osteocytes and decreased bone volume at both sites. In trabecular bone, exposure to the same artificial loading regimen induced a decrease in osteocyte sclerostin staining

and an increase in bone volume in the secondary but not the selleck products primary spongiosa. Sciatic neurectomy-related disuse caused an increase in osteocyte sclerostin staining and a decrease in bone volume in both primary and secondary spongiosa. The effects of sciatic neurectomy-related disuse on both cortical and trabecular bone were reversed by artificial loading, with a significant reduction in sclerostin expression, to below that seen in controls, at the proximal site and secondary spongiosa, respectively.

The analysis of loading-related strain levels, areas of new bone formed, and changes in the sclerostin status of osteocytes in cortical bone confirmed that sclerostin downregulation by loading was not uniform throughout the bone, and revealed that this was less closely associated with the magnitude of peak strain engendered than with the degree of subsequent local new bone formation. In the proximal cortical region, loading-related suppression of osteocyte sclerostin expression was linked to the area of loading-related newly formed bone. Loading-induced strain magnitude is frequently associated with subsequent bone formation, and at the proximal site, the strain distribution map we present, which is similar to that reported by others [30], was also related to the area of loading-related newly formed bone. These data are consistent with the results reported previously [6].

To date, a number of nanosized magnetite crystals with a variety

To date, a number of nanosized magnetite crystals with a variety of morphologies, such as nanoparticles, nanospheres, hollow spheres, nanorods, nanowires, nanotubes, nanorings, nanopyramids, nano-octahedra, and flowerlike nanostructures, have been prepared by a variety of chemistry-based processing routes, including STA-9090 solubility dmso coprecipitation, thermal decomposition, microemulsion, electrochemical synthesis, and solvothermal or hydrothermal synthesis [10–15]. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are only limited reports concerning the synthesis of ultrathin magnetite nanoplate and its interesting properties. Chen’s group synthesized γ-Fe2O3 nanoplates by a solvothermal process using ethanol as solvent

and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizer, followed by a reduction process to generate Fe3O4 nanoplates [16]. Xu and coworkers prepared triangular Fe3O4 nanoplates between two carbon films by pyrolyzing ferrocene and sodium oxalate at 600°C [17]. In this work, we report a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach for the preparation of magnetite nanoplates by the famous Schikorr reaction. Under anaerobic conditions, iron(II) hydroxide can be oxidized

by the Belinostat mouse protons of water to form iron(II,III) oxide and molecular hydrogen. This process is described by the Schikorr reaction [18–20]: (1) The Schikorr reaction usually occurs in the process of anaerobic corrosion of iron and carbon steel in various conditions [21, 22]. Herein, this reaction was used to prepare magnetite nanoplates. In addition, ethylene glycol (EG) was introduced to this reaction Epigenetics Compound Library supplier as another solvent besides H2O to adjust the morphology and thickness of the products. In a typical procedure, a FeSO4 water solution was added to a H2O-EG mixture containing NaOH at a constant rate and under stirring after nitrogen was bubbled through the two solutions for 2 h. When the precipitation was completed, the system was undisturbed and heated to 90°C for 24 h. Methods Materials All chemicals used in our experiments were purchased and used as received without further purification. Iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·7H2O, 99+%), ethylene glycol (C2H6O2, Resminostat 99%), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 98%) were purchased

from Alfa Aesar (Ward Hill, MA, USA). Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, >92%) was purchased from Shanghai Ling-Feng Chemical Reagent Co., Ltd. (Changshu City, China). Synthesis In the typical synthetic procedure of the Fe3O4 nanoplates, nitrogen is bubbled through two solutions independently: (a) 54 ml of water-EG mixture containing NaOH to obtain the final concentration of 0.22 M NaOH and (b) 6 ml of FeSO4·7H2O dissolved in 10−2 M H2SO4 to obtain the final concentration of 2.4 × 10−2 M. After 2 h, the iron(II) sulfate solution was added to the basic solution at a constant rate and under stirring. When the precipitation was completed, nitrogen was allowed to pass for another 3 min, and the system was undisturbed and heated to 90°C for 24 h in a Teflon autoclave.

If all ice sheets on the planet melted sea level would rise to +5

If all ice sheets on the planet melted sea level would rise to +50 m, their height 35 Ma The region is, or was until ~10 ka, drained by some of the most productive rivers on earth: the Salween, Chao Phraya (and its antecedent the Siam), Malacca, North Sunda, East Sunda, Mekong, and Red rivers. Throughout most of the Pleistocene the region had many sizable lakes but only the Tonle Sap of Cambodia remains, the others lay on the exposed Sunda Shelf and are now submerged (Sathiamurthy and Voris 2006). There have

been changes in the paths of some of the rivers that arise on the Tibetan H 89 molecular weight plateau and flow south through Yunnan (Brookfield 1998; Attwood and Johnston 2001; Meijaard and Groves 2006; Rainboth et al. 2010). The Red river of northern Vietnam, for example, lost its upper reaches [the current Yangtze river] about 75 ka. Such changes, the results of river captures and local tectonics, have had a significant impact on the biogeography of freshwater animals. The Salween, Mekong and Yangtze rivers all flow in sutures between adjacent terranes twisted north-south by collision of the Indian and Asian plates. The Mekong (and possibly the Salween by way of today’s Ping River) once flowed south to the Gulf of Thailand through what is now the Chao Phrya river valley. They formed a mega-river called the Siam, which delivered enormous quantities of sediment from the Tibetan Plateau to the

Sunda Shelf, and carved selleck chemicals out the Gulf of Thailand before emptying into the South China Sea. The sequential capture of the upper Mekong by the Yom, Nan and Pasak rivers (all Thai tributaries of today’s Chao Phrya) are not well dated but occurred in the last 3 million years. The present-day Mekong river did not develop until the Late Pleistocene; it assumed its present course from Tibet to Vietnam only about 5,000 years ago. The Tonle Sap formed in the last 8 ka. In Southeast Asia temperature however variation is less significant in determining the growing season and the natural vegetation than rainfall and its seasonality. The region’s characteristic seasonal (monsoonal) climate developed after the

rise of the Tibetan plateau (~30 Ma) and the closure of the seaway between the Australian and Asian plates (~15 Ma) and intensified ~10 Ma (Morley 2007; Berger 2009). The frequent interruption of this seasonality by ENSOs became significant 3–5 Mya. Today the region’s climates range from perhumid near the equator to markedly seasonal in the interior of Indochina (Chuan 2005; Corlett 2009a). Annual mean rainfall varies from 1,000–2,000 mm over most of continental Southeast Asia, to 2,000–3,000 in the Thai-Malay peninsula, Sumatra and southern Borneo, and >3,000 mm in central Borneo and isolated super-wet spots elsewhere. Weck’s climatic index (which includes a measure of seasonality based on water availability and temperature) also shows this north-south variation; from 200–300 in the seasonal north to >1000 in the perhumid Fedratinib equatorial south.

In order to achieve high-quality InN film, effort has been made b

In order to achieve high-quality InN film, effort has been made by researchers with different methods such as optimizing FRAX597 research buy growth temperature, controlling V/III ratio, introducing buffer layer, or employing pulsed atomic layer epitaxy technique [15, 16]. However, the crystalline quality of InN film is still far below a satisfactory level due to the existence of huge quantity of defects [16]. To elucidate the original difficulty in In film deposition, the formation kinetics of InN with N and In atoms on the In polar GaN surface has been systematically

studied by first-principles calculations [17], it was found that the pre-deposition of In VEGFR inhibitor bilayer on the surface could improve the In migration on the surface and the smoothness of In film. In this work, the epitaxy method of In bilayer controlling and penetrated nitridation

selleck products was employed for the InN film growth on GaN template. In order to determine critical trimethylindium (TMI) flow required for forming In bilayer, the pulse time of TMI supply was optimized. The results revealed that the film quality became better as the thickness of the top indium atomic layers was close to bilayer. Based on the In bilayer deposition, a moderate, stable, and slow nitridation process by NH3 flow also played the key role in growing better-quality InN film. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements confirmed the gradual relaxation of biaxial strain in InN epilayers during increment of the next smoothness. Methods Growth of samples InN films were grown on a 3-μm-thick GaN template with(0001) sapphire substrate by using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system with a Thomas Swan closely coupled showerhead (CCS) reactor. The trimethylgallium (TMG), trimethylindium (TMI), and ammonia (NH3) were used as the precursors for Ga, In, and N, respectively, and H2 and N2

were used as the carrier gasses. Prior to the GaN/AlGaN superlattice growth, thermal cleaning of the (0001)-oriented sapphire substrate was carried out under hydrogen ambient at 1,050°C for 10 min to remove native oxide from the surface. Then, an approximately 30-nm low-temperature GaN buffer layer (approximately 570°C) was grown followed by a approximately 3-μm high-quality GaN underlaying layer (approximately 1,090°C). During the stage of InN growth, the pressure was set to 450 torr at 550°C [18]. In order to accurately control the deposition of indium atomic multilayers and the following nitridation process, the pulse growth method was employed through switching and adjusting the pulsed supply time of TMI and ammonia flows, as shown in Figure 1. For samples A, B, C, and D, a constant TMI flow of 2.0 × 10−5 mol/min was used whereas a series of duration time of the pulsed TMI flow, 16, 8, 4, and 3 s, was applied, respectively. Then, they were followed by a 33-s pulse of NH3 flow for the nitridation process. The mole flow of ammonia was set to be 0.5 mol/min.

This study describes aspects of the natural history of an abundan

This study describes aspects of the ATR inhibitor Natural history of an abundant gall wasp and its most common parasitoids and inquilines. Methods Natural history of gall wasp The cynipid gall-inducer, A. quercuscalifornicus, induces a 5–250 cc (often apple-sized), multilocular (many wasps per gall) gall on the twigs of valley oak (Quercus lobata), a California endemic, where galls become 17DMAG molecular weight apparent on twigs with bimodal peaks of development which occur in the late spring and mid summer (Rosenthal and Koehler 1971b). It has also been collected from closely-related

oak species, Q. douglasii, Q. berberidifolia, and Q. garryana (Weld 1957). Gall abundances vary widely between individual trees, and extremely high gall densities of more than C188-9 in vivo 50 galls per cubic meter

of canopy may be supported by some trees. The range of A. quercuscalifornicus spans most of California with the extremes of southern Washington and northern Mexico (Russo 2006). Initially, the developing galls are green and moist throughout, but towards fall the external wall of the gall becomes harder, and the entire gall desiccates (“maturation date” in this study). Larvae grow and differentiate until fall, when fully developed adults emerge. Descriptions exist only for females of A. quercuscalifornicus, and the species is thought to be entirely parthenogenetic and univoltine (Schick 2002), although a cryptic, sexual generation cannot be ruled out, as cryptic cyclical parthenogenesis has been found in other cynipid species (Abe 2006; Rosenthal and Koehler 1971a). Similarly, oviposition Uroporphyrinogen III synthase has never been recorded in this species, and little is known about the exact placement of eggs on twig tissue. Andricus quercuscalifornicus has been variously divided into different subspecies by some authors (Fullaway 1911; Kinsey 1922; Russo 2006; Weld 1957), and, as yet, no molecular genetic information exists about the species. Gall abundance on twigs is correlated with shoot vigor (Rosenthal and Koehler 1971b), but other factors, such as plant genotype, likely determine inter-tree

distributions of galls (Moorehead et al. 1993). Collection of galls and rearing of insects In summer 2007 (June 1–October 10, 2007), 1234 oak apple galls were collected from valley oaks in Davis, Woodland, and Vacaville in the Central Valley of California. Valley oaks were chosen haphazardly from natural stands, riparian areas, suburban areas, and planted groves. All galls were collected from Q. lobata, and at least 20 trees were sampled per site. Galls that had changed from an early green/red to a pale brown/white color, had begun to desiccate, and lacked emergence holes were chosen for the survey. Following collection, each individual gall was placed in a closed clear plastic cup and left outdoors at ambient temperature.

Bernfield M, Gotte M, Park PW, Reizes O, Fitzgerald ML, Lincecum

Bernfield M, Gotte M, Park PW, Reizes O, Fitzgerald ML, Lincecum J, Zako M: Functions of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Annu Rev Biochem 1999, 68:729–777.PubMedCrossRef 4. Liu D, Shriver Z, Qi Y, Venkataraman G, Sasisekharan R: Dynamic regulation of tumor growth and metastasis by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans. Semin Thromb Hemost 2002, 28:67–78.PubMedCrossRef 5. Pye DA, Vives RR, Hyde P, Gallagher JT: Regulation of FGF-1 mitogenic activity by heparan sulfate oligosaccharides is

dependent on specific structural features: differential requirements for the modulation of FGF-1 and FGF-2. Glycobiology 2000, 10:1183–1192.PubMedCrossRef 6. Filmus J: Glypicans in growth control and cancer. Glycobiology 2001, 11:19R-23R.PubMedCrossRef 7. Folkman J: Angiogenesis-dependent check details diseases. Semin Oncol 2001, 28:536–542.PubMedCrossRef 8. Iozzo RV, San Antonio JD: Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: heavy hitters in the angiogenesis arena. J Clin Invest 2001, 108:349–355.PubMed 9. Xiang YY,

Ladeda V, Filmus J: Glypican-3 expression is silenced in human breast cancer. Oncogene 2001, 20:7408–7412.PubMedCrossRef 10. Dhoot GK, Gustafsson MK, Ai X, Sun W, Standiford DM, Emerson CP Jr: Regulation of Wnt signaling and embryo patterning by an extracellular sulfatase. Science 2001, 293:1663–1666.PubMedCrossRef Apoptosis inhibitor 11. Abiatari I, Kleeff J, Li J, Felix K, Buchler MW, Friess H: Savolitinib price HSulf-1 regulates growth and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. J Clin Pathol 2006, 59:1052–1058.PubMedCrossRef 12. Lai J, Chien J, Staub J, Avula R, Greene EL, Matthews TA, Smith DI, Kaufmann SH, Roberts LR, Shridhar V:

Loss of HSulf-1 up-regulates heparin-binding growth factor signaling in cancer. J Biol Chem 2003, 278:23107–23117.PubMedCrossRef 13. Lai JP, Chien J, Strome SE, Staub J, Montoya DP, Greene EL, Smith DI, Roberts LR, Shridhar V: HSulf-1 modulates HGF-mediated tumor cell invasion and signaling in head and neck squamous carcinoma. Oncogene 2004, 23:1439–1447.PubMedCrossRef 14. Lai JP, Chien JR, Moser DR, Staub JK, Aderca I, Montoya DP, Matthews TA, Nagorney DM, Celecoxib Cunningham JM, Smith DI, et al.: hSulf1 Sulfatase promotes apoptosis of hepatocellular cancer cells by decreasing heparin-binding growth factor signaling. Gastroenterology 2004, 126:231–248.PubMedCrossRef 15. Staub J, Chien J, Pan Y, Qian X, Narita K, Aletti G, Scheerer M, Roberts LR, Molina J, Shridhar V: Epigenetic silencing of HSulf-1 in ovarian cancer:implications in chemoresistance. Oncogene 2007, 26:4969–4978.PubMedCrossRef 16. Johnson AD, Wang D, Sadee W: Polymorphisms affecting gene regulation and mRNA processing: broad implications for pharmacogenetics. Pharmacol Ther 2005, 106:19–38.PubMedCrossRef 17. Johnson AD, Zhang Y, Papp AC, Pinsonneault JK, Lim JE, Saffen D, Dai Z, Wang D, Sadee W: Polymorphisms affecting gene transcription and mRNA processing in pharmacogenetic candidate genes: detection through allelic expression imbalance in human target tissues. Pharmacogenet Genomics 2008, 18:781–791.

1 pJ per operation [25] and multi-level data storage [16] require

1 pJ per operation [25] and multi-level data storage [16] required for high-density integration

were reported. The energy consumption can be further reduced with increased reliability by scaling it to smaller dimensions [30]. Long pulse endurance of >1012 cycles is also demonstrated in TaO x -based crossbar device [31]. Other incentives of RRAM include its simple metal-insulator-metal CRT0066101 price (MIM) structure and good complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility. However, the poor understanding of the switching reliability, mechanism, low-current operation (<100 μA) are the bottlenecks in its further development and optimization. Overall, on the light of above discussion, RRAM is one of the most promising candidates for the replacement of flash in future. On the other hand, RRAM can also find its own application area, which will be more challenging and useful in the near future. Furthermore, the TaO x -based RRAM devices have been also reported Z-DEVD-FMK extensively in the literature and shown good resistive switching performance. It is expected that this TaO x -based RRAM device has strong potential for production in near

future. However, the TaO x -based RRAM devices with prospective and challenges have not been reviewed in literature yet. Figure 1 Prospective of RRAM devices. Endurance, speed, scalability, and requirements of RRAM devices. This topical review investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performances of the TaO x -based devices as compared to other RRAMs in literature. Long program/erase endurance and data retention of >85°C with high

yield have a greater prospective of TaO x -based nanoscale RRAM devices; however, lower current (few microampere) operation is very challenging for practical application, which is reviewed in detail here. Resistive RAM overview Resistance switching effect was first reported by Hickmott in 1962 [32] and had subsequently been observed by many researchers over the years [9–36]. RRAM is a two-terminal passive device Oxymatrine in which a comparatively insulating switching layer is sandwiched between two electrically conducting electrodes, as shown in Figure 2. However, a working RRAM device generally consists of one transistor (1T) or one diode (1D) and one resistor (1R), i.e., 1T1R or 1D1R configurations. The resistance of the RRAM device can be altered by simply applying external bias across the MIM stack. The electrode on which a mTOR inhibitor therapy voltage or current is applied can be referred to as the top electrode (TE), and the other electrically grounded electrode can be called as the bottom electrode (BE). Figure 2 Structure of RRAM device. Schematic diagram of RRAM in metal-insulator-metal structure and its biasing. Switching modes: unipolar/bipolar The resistance of a RRAM device can be modulated in two ways as shown by the current/voltage (I-V) curves in Figure 3. On the basis of I-V curves, the switching modes can be classified as unipolar (nonpolar) and bipolar.

​pdf] 10 Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R,

​pdf] 10. Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Krapcho M, Neyman N, Aminou R, Waldron W, Ruhl J, Howlader N, Tatalovich Z, Cho H, Mariotto A, Eisner MP, Lewis DR, Cronin K, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Stinchcomb Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor DG, Edwards BK: SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2007. [http://​seer.​cancer.​gov/​csr/​1975_​2007/​]

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Svane IM: Therapeutic dendritic cell vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a clinical phase 1/2 trial. J Immunother 2008, 31:771–780.PubMedCrossRef 16. Gowans EJ, Roberts S, Jones K, Dinatale I, Latour PA, Chua B, Eriksson EMY, Chin R, Li S, Wall DM, Sparrow RL, Moloney J, Loudovaris M, Ffrench R, Prince HM, Hart D, Zeng W, Torresi J, Brown LE, Jackson DC: A phase Glutamate dehydrogenase I clinical trial of dendritic cell immunotherapy in HCV-infected individuals. J Hepatol 2010, 53:599–607.PubMedCrossRef

17. McNeel DG, Dunphy EJ, Davies JG, Frye TP, Johnson LE, Staab MJ, Horvath DL, Straus J, Alberti D, Marnocha R, Liu G, Eickhoff JC, Wilding G: Safety and Immunological Efficacy of a DNA Vaccine Encoding Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Patients With Stage D0 Prostate Cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2009, 27:4047–4054.PubMedCrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions STS and LZ conceived the design of the study, participated in data analysis and were in charge of its coordination. JV and HNH processed the tumor tissue and performed the immunohistochemistry. ASB and MWP cared for the patients during the conventional treatment. MWP and SCOG cared for the patients during the immunotherapy, participated in data analysis, performed data interpretation and drafted the manuscript. MTA conducted the laboratory procedures to produce the DC vaccine, supported by SCOG. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

CrossRef 2 Higuchi T, Nakagomi S, Kokubun Y: Field effect

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and fast response hydrogen sensors based on electrochemically etched porous titania thin films. Sens Actuators B 2006, 115:403–411.CrossRef 12. Zakrzewska K, Radecka M, Rekas M: Effect of Nb, Cr, Sn additions on gas sensing properties of TiO2 thin films. Thin Solid Films 1997, 310:161–166.CrossRef 13. Srivastava S, Kumar S, Singh VN, Singh M, Vijay YK: Investigations of AB5-type hydrogen storage materials with enhanced hydrogen storage capacity. Int J Hydrogen Energy 2011, 36:6343–6355.CrossRef 14. Tavares CJ, Castro MV, Marins ES, Samantilleke AP, Ferdov S, Rebouta L, Benelmekki M, Cerqueira MF, Alpuim P, Xuriguera E, Rivière JP, Eyidi D, Beaufort MF, Mendes A: Effect of hot-filament annealing in a hydrogen atmosphere on the electrical and structural properties of Nb-doped TiO2 sputtered thin films. Thin Solid Films 2012, 520:2514–2519.CrossRef 15. Yasuhiro S, Takeo H, Makoto E: H2 sensing performance of anodically oxidized TiO2 thin films equipped with Pd electrode. Sens Actuators B 2007, 121:219–220.CrossRef 16. Boon-Bretta L, Bousek J, Moretto P: Reliability of commercially available hydrogen sensors for detection of hydrogen at critical concentrations: part II – selected sensor test results.