Model wine was prepared with (+)-tartaric acid (6 g L−1) supplied

Model wine was prepared with (+)-tartaric acid (6 g L−1) supplied by Synth (São Paulo, Brazil)

and 10% of ethanol in MilliQ deionised water. Twenty-two standard compounds were purchased from Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany) and individual stock solutions of each component were prepared in double distilled ethanol purchased from Nuclear (São Paulo, Brazil). The final concentrations of each one of the 22 standard compounds in the model wine solution are listed between parentheses, as follows: ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl decanoate, diethyl succinate and propanol (1000 μg/L of each standard compound), ethyl propanoate, buy Veliparib ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, ethyl lactate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, hexanol, isoamyl acetate, terpinen-4-ol and eugenol (100 μg/L of each standard compound); ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethyl acetate (50 μg/L of each standard compound); 2-phenylethanol, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid and dodecanoic acid (5000 μg/L of each standard compound). The pH was adjusted to 3.5 with sodium hydroxide (Nuclear, São Paulo, Brazil). Ultra-pure water was prepared using a Milli-Q water purification system (Millipore, Bedford, MA). The SPME fibre (50/30 divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane

(DVB/CAR/PDMS) StableFlex) was BCKDHB purchased from Supelco (Bellefonte, PA). The fibre was conditioned according to the manufacturer’s recommendation prior to its first use. Sodium chloride (NaCl) of analytical grade was purchased from Nuclear Selleck Bortezomib and was oven dried at 110 °C overnight before use. Twenty microlitre headspace vials with magnetic screw caps sealed with silicone septa were purchased from Supelco. A CTC CombiPAL autosampler (CTC Analytics, Zwingen, Switzerland) with an agitator and SPME fibre was used to extract the volatiles from the sample vial headspace. The GC × GC system consisted of an Agilent 6890N (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) equipped with a Pegasus

IV time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Leco Corporation, St. Joseph, MI). A DB-Wax column (100% polyethylene glycol; 30 m  × 0.25 mm  × 0.25 μm, J&W Scientific Inc., Folsom, CA) was used as first-dimension (1D) column, and a DB-17 ms column (50% phenyl-50% methylpolysiloxane; 1.70 m  × 0.18 mm  × 0.18 μm, J&W Scientific Inc.) was used as a second-dimension (2D) column. The GC system was equipped with a secondary column oven and non-moving quadjet dual-stage thermal modulator. During modulation, cold pulses were generated using dry nitrogen gas cooled by liquid nitrogen (Linde, Canoas, RS, Brazil), whereas heated dry air was used for hot pulses. The injector, transfer line and ion source temperature were at 250 °C.

0 g) were suspended in deionised water (1:5 w/v), mixed with ther

0 g) were suspended in deionised water (1:5 w/v), mixed with thermostable α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (EC, 200 μl, 3000 U/ml, Megazyme, Ireland) and incubated in a water bath (SalvisLab, Schweiz, Switzerland) for 1 h at 100 °C with occasional shaking. The suspension was cooled down to room temperature, mixed with amyloglucosidase from Aspergillus niger (EC, 800 μl, 3300 U/ml, Megazyme, Ireland) and protease from B. licheniformis (EC, PLX-4720 price 400 μl, 350 tyrosine U/ml, Megazyme, Ireland) and incubated in a shaking water bath at 40 °C for 16 h. The suspension was centrifuged in

a Kokusan H-2000A2 centrifuge (15,000g, 4 °C, 25 min). The supernatant NLG919 was mixed with lichenase from Bacillus subtilis (EC, 100 μl, 1000 U/ml, Megazyme,

Ireland) and incubated for 2 h at 40 °C in a shaking water bath. The WE-AX present in the supernatant were precipitated with 96% ethanol (1:4 v/v) overnight at 6 °C, centrifuged (4500g, 20 min) in a Sigma 4–15 centrifuge (Sigma, Laborzentrifugen, Osterode, Germany) and freeze-dried. The contents of AX in WE and WU fractions of rye flours and breads were estimated by the method of Englyst and Cummings (1984), which was modified as described above, using duplicates of 200 mg sample. The ethanol precipitated WE-AX and WU-AX in the pellet were hydrolysed in 1 M sulfuric acid (100 °C, 2 h). The monosaccharides were derivatized to alditol acetates and quantified on a capillary column (DB-23, 30 m, 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 μm film thickness; Agilent J & W) in an Agilent gas chromatograph (Agilent 7890A Series GC Custom) equipped with an autosampler (Agilent 7693A), a splitter injection port (split ratio 1:20) and a flame ionisation detector. The injector port and detector were heated at 230

and 250 °C, respectively. Hydrogen was used as a carrier gas. Phosphoprotein phosphatase The column was held at 180 °C for 2 min, ramped from 180 to 220 °C at 5 °C/min and held at 220 °C for 10 min. Meso-erythritol (Sigma–Aldrich) was used as an internal standard. The arabinose content obtained from monosaccharide analysis was corrected for that present in arabinogalactan, assuming its arabinose to galactose ratio of 0.7 ( Van den Bulck et al., 2005). AX content was calculated as 0.88 times the sum of corrected arabinose and xylose contents. The isolated WE-AX fractions were dissolved in ultrapure water (5 mg/ml) for 16 h at 40 °C using a rotary incubator, filtered through 0.45 μm membrane, and injected into a high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system at room temperature. The system consisted of an autosampler, a pump module and two Shodex OH-pack SB HQ 804 and 805 columns (Sowa Denko K.K., Tokyo, Japan). The sample was eluted at 0.7 ml/min with 0.05 M NaNO3 containing 0.02% NaN3.

These include a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and a carbon paste

These include a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and a carbon paste electrode with complexes and organic compounds, such as, Naphthol green B doped in polypyrrole film (Mohadesi & Taher, 2007), cobalt phthalocyanine nanoparticles (Wang, Xu, Tang, & Chen, 2005), poly(caffeic acid) (Li, Ren, & Luo, Atezolizumab 2007)), octacyanomolybdate-doped-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (Thangamuthu, Senthil Kumar, & Chandrasekara Pillai, 2007), ferrocene and its

derivatives (Pournaghi-Azar and Ojani, 1999, Raoof et al., 2006 and Wang and Du, 2004), vanadium oxide polypropylene carbonate (Tian et al., 2006), ruthenium oxide (Shakkthivel & Chen, 2007) and polyaniline film (Mu & Kan, 2002). Enzymes have been used to improve the selectivity of many reactions using the amperometric detection. Due to the enzymes high cost, some strategies have been reported to reduce its consumption. Recently, various ion-exchange resins have gained considerable attention not only for separation purposes but also as carriers of catalytic active substances, as enzymes (Franchini et al., 2008). These resins must meet several requirements as having a porous structure that is strong enough click here to withstand a pressure increase, usually applied in flow bioreactors, and having a chemically and physically resistant membrane material. These requirements

can be met by several aromatic and aliphatic polyamides. Therefore, resin prepared from these polymers is a suitable substrate for the immobilisation of enzymes (Watkins et al., 1995). The covalent binding of the

enzymes to the polymer matrix is one of the most prospective methods for its immobilisation. It is known that the ascorbate oxidase enzyme catalyses fast and selectively the oxidation reaction of ascorbic acid. In this work, we describe a differential amperometric determination of ascorbic acid in honey using a gold electrode modified by electrodeposition with palladium, and a tubular reactor containing the ascorbate oxidase enzyme immobilised on amberlite IRA-743. The concentrations of ascorbic acid in each sample were calculated based on the difference between the current measured before and after the enzymatic treatment. The procedure adopted to immobilise the ascorbate oxidase enzyme was quick and simple (Matos, Pedrotti, & Angnes, 2001). Amberlite IRA-173 resin was selected as support, because it has active amine Sitaxentan groups in its chemical structure. The enzyme immobilisation process begins with the addition of 100 μl of glutaraldehyde 0.1% to 250 mg of resin, and this mixture was stirred for 5 min. Subsequently, 50 units of enzymes were introduced into the mixture and stirred for an additional time of 10 min. In the next step, the resin was transferred to a tygon tubing (2.5 mm of i.d. and 25 mm long) with its extremities closed with a thin layer of glass wool to assemble the reactor. To adapt the enzymatic reactor to a FIA (flow injection analysis) system, the tubing (0.8 mm of i.d.

The present study aims to overcome these identified weaknesses, b

The present study aims to overcome these identified weaknesses, by examining contemporary CNC practice free of any prior theoretical

commitment to the Strong Model, and to identify the key features, or unique value add of the CNC role as lived. This identification will facilitate more specific tailoring of design of education programs to prepare for the role. It will also provide an understanding that contributes to scenario-based modeling of possible futures for the nursing workforce. To identify the key features or unique value add of Everolimus price the CNC role as lived (free of theoretical commitment to the Strong Model). The scholarly tradition of Hermeneutic Phenomenology was used to explore the experience as lived of being a CNC in regional (North Coast of NSW) and metropolitan (Sydney NSW) locations. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 37 CNCs check details (18 metropolitan, 19 regional). Each group was guided by a facilitator and co-facilitator from the research team. Like all phenomenology there is no cook book style recipe of method that can be employed, but rather quality scholarship arises from adherence to the chosen philosophical tradition (Van Manen, 1979). Demonstration of scholarship and how the project ‘hangs together’ conceptually (Davey, 2006) allows the passing of the “so-what” test of significance (Sandelowski, 1997). This study used focus groups to allow

the researchers to fuse horizons (Gadamer, 1976) with CNCs in a group conversation related to the nature of the role. In keeping with hermeneutics (as opposed to transcendental phenomenology) this fusion involves a conscious effort to acknowledge the subjectivity of both the PtdIns(3,4)P2 participants and researchers as meaning is found in the contact between people, as opposed to a misguided quest to construct a perfect ‘subject less’ interaction (in which all prejudices can be identified and bracketed) between completely understood motives and the consciously performed action of research

to aimed at identifying universal essence (Gadamer, 1976 and Finlay, 2002). The group environment conducive to moving in a circular process from concrete to abstraction and back again while checking resonance with CNCs from different contexts. Participating CNCs responded to a general emailed invitation to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were employment as a CNC in NSW. The conversation was not idle chatter but a dialog focused on the phenomena of which both participants and researchers had agreed to focus and shared a sense of relevance (Bernstein, 1983). The researchers began with the general invitation to discuss the experience of practicing as a CNC and had an interview guide that could be used to prompt, to reground the conversations as needed and to encourage a consistent approach to directing the discussion (see Table 1).

Ponderosa pine dominated (>72%) average basal area in forests on

Ponderosa pine dominated (>72%) average basal area in forests on all of the habitat types and study areas, except the Moist Mixed sites in the Chiloquin area where 54% of the basal area was ponderosa pine (Table 4). Ponderosa pine also constituted the majority of the basal area of small trees (15–53 cm dbh) on the selleck inhibitor ponderosa pine and Dry Mixed sites (Fig. 4). More than 74% of all

trees recorded on each transect were ponderosa pine except on Moist Mixed sites (Table 4). Associated tree species varied with forest type. White fir was infrequently present on ponderosa pine sites and uncommon on Dry Mixed sites. White fir was co-dominant with ponderosa pine on Moist Mixed sites. White fir constituted 45 ± 29% of the total basal area and 27 ± 26% of the large tree basal area while ponderosa pine constituted 45 ± 30% of total basal area but, by contrast, 65 ± 26% of the large tree basal area (Table 44). On Dry Mixed sites, abundance of large-diameter white fir (>53 cm dbh) varied from 0 to 20 tph Palbociclib with a mean of 4 ± 4 tph; abundance on Moist Mixed sites ranged from 0 to 116 with a mean of 11 ± 13 tph. Large sugar pines were prominent in forests on Dry Mixed sites in the Black Hills area (Table 4). Representation of other tree species was very low on all ponderosa pine sites, except for lodgepole pine in Wildhorse (Table

4). On ponderosa pine sites on pumice soils (PIPO–PICO sites), lodgepole pine was most abundant in areas adjacent to lower elevation, poorly drained flats and prairies. Above 1450 m elevation, lodgepole pine was less abundant (5 ± 15%)

on the PIPO–PICO sites. Stand basal areas increased gradually along the moisture and productivity gradient represented by the sequence from PIPO Xeric to Moist Mixed sites (Fig. 3). However, the trend toward increasing tree Levetiracetam density is very weak, particularly when the PIPO Xeric sites are excluded. Forests on PIPO Xeric and PIPO Dry sites, which are located at the southern boundary of the central Oregon pumice zone, contrast with the PIPO–PICO sites located near the center of the pumice zone. The higher densities and basal area of the forests on PIPO–PICO sites are more similar to the mixed-conifer habitat types than the drier ponderosa pine habitat types. The wider range recorded for basal area on mixed-conifer sites (0–83 m2/ha) reflects greater variability in those stands than in stands on ponderosa pine sites (0–30 m2/ha, Fig. 3, Table 5). Substantial variability existed in the historical landscape at the scale of the sample transects as evidenced by the ranges reported for each habitat type (Table 5, Fig. 3) and differences within the same habitat type in different areas (Table 4). Variability around the mean condition described in Section 3.

, 2005 and Dick et al , 2008) Outbreeding depression seems most

, 2005 and Dick et al., 2008). Outbreeding depression seems most likely to be a risk when high quantities of FRM are introduced from environments that are very different from the local one (Frankham et al., 2011). In light of current uncertainties, it is necessary to carefully weigh the risk

of outbreeding depression against the risk that on-going loss of genetic diversity poses to the long-term persistence of populations (McKay et al., 2005, Edmands, 2007 and Sgrò et al., 2011). The true risk of outbreeding depression in restoration activities should be tested through experimental research (Breed et al., 2013). Planning for the expected impacts Fasudil ic50 of climate change complicates the choice of seed sources for restoration. Climate change will have a strong impact on many restoration sites (Hobbs et al 2009), yet currently few restoration practitioners appear to consider climate predictions in their design (Sgrò et al., 2011 and Bozzano et al., 2014). Degraded forest sites typically constitute tough environments for seedling establishment and growth. When the climate simultaneously becomes harsher, natural

or planted propagules experience even stronger selection pressure. Tree species generally have high genetic variation in adaptive traits, constituting latent adaptive potential which is expressed only when conditions change (Gamache and Payette, 2004, O’Neill et al., 2008, Doi et PD98059 al., 2009, Thompson et al., 2010, Mata et al., 2012 and Alfaro et al., 2014). Intuitively, the gene pool of surviving trees on sites that are already affected by climate change could provide useful seed sources for sites with conditions that are currently less extreme, but still nearing the edge of a species’ tolerance. This is because such residual trees may be better adapted to the extreme conditions. However, the identification and selection of appropriate sources of

FRM for a given restoration site should ideally be guided by the strength of the interaction between genotype performance and current and future environmental conditions (genotype-by-environment, Myosin G × E interactions), which are studied using multi-location progeny or provenance trials and climate modelling, respectively (Sgrò et al., 2011). Globally, some 700 tree species are subject to some level of improvement, including provenance and/or progeny testing (FAO, 2014). Such tests can help identify planting sources that are adapted to a particular site and the range within which reproductive material of a species can be moved without significant loss of adaptation (ecological tolerance limits).

Importantly, group leaders make

the point that there are

Importantly, group leaders make

the point that there are times when escape is the preferred response. In situations where real physical harm is possible, or where there are multiple bullies present, the youth is encouraged to exit the scene without fear of looking weak. For example, if Selleck Y27632 five youth converge on a targeted youth in the hallway and start hitting the youth, we would certainly recommend the youth flee the situation. If the five youth are taunting the targeted youth but not getting physical, we might recommend leaving the situation but try asserting him- or her-self first (e.g., telling the bullies their taunts do not affect him or her). If it is a one-on-one situation in a relatively safe situation (e.g., classroom), we might encourage the targeted youth to fully practice assertiveness skills to see what impact assertiveness has. Group leaders help members evaluate in what situations it makes sense to stand up for oneself and which situations are “too hot to handle” on one’s own. The group returns to the bullying thermometer and adds solutions to the various bullying

events so that youth feel prepared the next time such events occur. The fourth module leads group members through the process of accessing their social support when they have been a victim of bullying or realize they are “in over their head” after trying assertiveness skills. Students review their previous social network and discuss if anything has changed. selleck screening library Who have they called for advice? Who did they talk to for support or just to hang out? Who have they called when they were in trouble? Now that group members are familiar with the various types of support they can access (emotional, instrumental, informational, companionship), they may now have a refined notion of who is most helpful in which circumstances. The group leader can lead the group in a discussion of successes and challenges in accessing support over the past few weeks, helping

each identify the most helpful members in their social network as well as the most useful 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase strategies in accessing help. The leaders provide active shaping in the discussion. Milder forms of bullying may benefit from help from peers or siblings. More severe forms of bullying may necessitate help from adults. Members may be hesitant to access help from adults based on past disappointments, but group leaders should continue to encourage youth to access adult help when serious bullying occurs. The group then role-plays scenarios of different types of bullying and confrontations and enacts what would happen when they approach different people in their social network. Video 2 illustrates a discussion of using one’s social network to mobilize one’s forces. Students return to the bullying thermometer and list who they would approach in different circumstances.

, 2012, Eurosurveillance Editorial, 2012 and Reusken et al , 2012

, 2012, Eurosurveillance Editorial, 2012 and Reusken et al., 2012). To date, these studies have not found any evidence of human infection. It is clear, however, that the potential role of Culicoides in transmitting arboviruses both to and between humans in Europe has not been considered in detail from an entomological perspective ( Reusken et al., 2012). In order to gain a clearer

understanding of the likelihood of transmission by Culicoides of arboviruses both to and between humans it is therefore buy Nintedanib necessary to consider both the likelihood of future incursions and their potential for wider-scale spread in this context. The routes by which Culicoides-borne arboviruses can be introduced into new ecosystems have been reviewed in detail, particularly with reference to the BTV-8 outbreak in northern Europe

( Carpenter et al., 2009, Mintiens et al., 2008 and Napp et al., 2013). Most commonly, incursions arise from the wind-assisted movement of infectious Culicoides midges ( Burgin et al., 2013, Mellor and Wittmann, 2002 and Sellers, 1992) or imported viraemic livestock ( Sellers and Taylor, BGB324 cell line 1980) and hence are predictable in a wider sense where monitoring of occurrence is carried out and reported effectively in regions of transmission. The unlicensed use of partially-attenuated BTV vaccine strains is also relatively straightforward to trace using molecular phylogenetics and is known to have resulted in the transient appearance of BTV-6 ( van Rijn et al., 2012) and BTV-11 ( De Clercq et al., 2009) in Europe. While these routes can explain the majority of incursions of Culicoides-borne arboviruses into Europe, the method(s) of movement of BTV-8, BTV-25 and SBV into the region remain unknown ( Carpenter et al., 2009 and Maan et al., 2008). During the initial stages of the BTV-8 outbreak, there was a general assumption that the incursion was precipitated by increases in global shipping of cargo, livestock, wildlife and humans, factors that have been invoked frequently to explain

the emergence of other vector-borne Guanylate cyclase 2C diseases (Kilpatrick and Randolph, 2012). Circumstantial evidence that these routes of entry could be involved was initially provided by the identification of BTV-8 index cases in the Maastricht region of the Netherlands, an international transport hub for plants, animals and humans, although later studies appeared to suggest early occurrence of the virus in ruminants on farms close to national parks in Belgium (Saegerman et al., 2010). The epidemiological relevance of this conclusion in mode of introduction has not been investigated in detail. Introduction of arboviruses such as BTV-8 could occur through the movement of infected Culicoides vectors associated with animal or human transport or through inadvertent inclusion with other cargoes, such as cut flowers.

Clair, Ottawa-Stony,

Clair, Ottawa-Stony, Raisin, Maumee, Cedar-Portage, Sandusky, Huron-Vermilion, and Cedar Creek

watersheds (#1, 6–11, 24) are dominated by fertilizer; and inputs to the Grand (Ont) and Thames watersheds (#19, 20) are dominated by manure. Just as tributary loads are not evenly distributed among major watersheds, non-point sources within those watersheds vary considerably. To explore this heterogeneity, Bosch et al. (2013) applied calibrated SWAT models (Bosch et al., 2011) of the Huron, Raisin, Maumee, Sandusky, Cuyahoga, and Grand watersheds representing together 53% of the binational Lake Erie basin. These authors simulated subwatershed average annual TP and DRP yields (Fig. 14) for 1998–2005. Their results indicate, for example, that the Maumee River subwatersheds with the highest DRP yield were located sporadically throughout the watershed; whereas, those yielding high TP loads were found primarily in its upper reaches. By contrast, high-yield subwatersheds for both DRP and TP were dispersed throughout the Sandusky River watershed; while subwatersheds in the upper reaches of the Cuyahoga River watershed were the greatest sources of both DRP and TP. Findings such as these led Bosch et al. (2013) to conclude that DRP and

TP flux is not uniformly distributed within the watersheds. For example, 36% of DRP and 41% of TP come from ~ 25% of the agriculturally dominated Maumee River sub-watersheds. Similar disproportionate contributions Akt inhibition of DRP and TP were found for the Sandusky River watershed (33% and 38%, respectively) and Cuyahoga watershed (44% and 39%, respectively). These collective

results suggest that spatial targeting of management actions would be an effective P reduction strategy. However, it is important to note that these loads represent flux to the stream channels at the exit of each subwatershed, not P delivered to the lake. Thus, the maps of important contributing sources of TP and DRP to the lake could be different if flux to the lake were considered. In addition to identifying potential sources of TP and DRP to the Lake Erie ecosystem, PtdIns(3,4)P2 the EcoFore-Lake Erie program sought to evaluate how land-use practices could influence nutrient inputs that drive hypoxia formation. In the following sections, we review some of the available best management practices (BMPs) and use SWAT modeling to test their effectiveness in influencing nutrient flux. McElmurry et al. (2013) reviewed the effectiveness of the current suite of urban and agricultural BMPs available for managing P loads to Lake Erie. Because of the dominance of agricultural non-point sources, we focus here on agricultural BMPs. The Ohio Lake Erie Phosphorus Task Force also recommended a suite of BMPs for reducing nutrient and sediment exports to Lake Erie (OH-EPA 2010). Source BMPs (Sharpley et al., 2006) are designed to minimize P pollution at its source.

Thus, it is useful to consider the paradigm of “bankfull” flow (s

Thus, it is useful to consider the paradigm of “bankfull” flow (sensu Leopold et al., 1964), to understand natural range of process dynamics in stable alluvial channels relative to incised channels. Bankfull flow is considered to be the dominant discharge, or range of channel forming flows, that creates a stable alluvial channel form ( Wolman and Miller, 1960). In stable alluvial channels, frequently recurring bankfull find more flows fill the channel to the top of the banks before water overflows the channel onto adjacent floodplains—hence the term “bankfull. However, two factors challenge using the stable channel morphologic

and hydrologic bankfull paradigm in incising channels. First, in an incising channel, former morphologic bankfull indicators, such as the edge of the floodplain, no longer represent the channel forming flow stage. Second, in incising channels high flow magnitudes increasingly become contained within the channel without reaching the top of the banks or overflowing

onto the floodplain such that channel-floodplain connectivity diminishes. Any flood that is large enough to fill an incised channel from bank to bank has an increasingly large transport capacity relative to the former channel forming flow, such as is illustrated in the Robinson Creek case study where transport capacity in the incised channel increased by up to 22% since incision began. Therefore, we suggest that the term “bankfull” be abandoned when UMI-77 considering incised Amino acid systems. Instead we use the concept of “effective flow,” the flow necessary

to mobilize sediment that moves as bedload in alluvial channels. We explain our rationale through development of a metric to identify and determine the extent of incision in Robinson Creek or in other incised alluvial channels. Despite the inapplicability of the term bankfull to incised alluvial channels, considering the concept does lead to a potential tool to help identify when a channel has incised. For example, in stable alluvial channels, bankfull stage indicates a lower limiting depth necessary for entrainment (Parker and Peterson, 1968) required for bar formation because sediment must be mobilized to transport gravel from upstream to a bar surface (Church and Jones, 1982). Thus, in a stable gravel-bed alluvial channels, bar height may be taken as a rough approximation of the depth of flow required to entrain gravel before increasing flow stages overtop channel banks and inundate floodplains. Prior estimates in stable northern California alluvial creeks suggest that bar surface elevation is ∼71% of bankfull depth (e.g. Florsheim, 1985). In incised channels, bar surface elevation may still represent an estimate of the height of effective channel flow required to entrain sediment, as increasing flow stages are confined to an incised channel.