05). Simultaneously, a prolonged depolarizing current injection enhanced (p < 0.05) repetitive firing evoked firing rate. These results suggested that 10(-4) g/ml nano-ZnO solution can lead to an enhancement in the current amplitudes Of I(Na) and IK by increasing the Epigenetics inhibitor opening number of sodium channels, delaying rectifier potassium channels, and enhancing the excitability of neurons, which lead to Na(+) influx and the accumulation of intracellular Na(+), as well as K(+) efflux plus the loss of cytoplasmic K(+). These may disturb the ionic homeostasis and the physiological functions of neurons. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc.
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“Newcastle PU-H71 cell line disease virus (NDV) entry into host cells is mediated by the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) glycoproteins. We previously showed that production of free thiols in F protein is required for membrane fusion directed by F protein (S. Jain et al., J. Virol. 81:2328-2339, 2007). In the present study we evaluated the oxidation state of F protein in virions and virus-like particles and its relationship to activation of F protein by HN protein, F protein conformational intermediates, and virus-cell fusion. F protein, in particles, does not have free thiols, but free thiols Alectinib mouse were produced upon
binding of particles to target cells. Free thiols were produced at 16 C in F protein in virions bound to the target cells. They also appeared in different fusion defective mutant F proteins. Free thiols were produced in the presence of mutant HN proteins that are defective in F protein activation but are attachment competent. These results suggest that free thiols appear prior to any of the proposed major conformational changes in F protein which accompany fusion activation. These results also indicate that HN protein binding to its receptor likely facilitates the interaction
between F protein and host cell isomerases, leading to reduction of disulfide bonds in F protein. Taken together, these results show that free thiols are produced in F protein at a very early stage during the onset of fusion and that the production of free thiols is required for fusion in addition to activation by HN protein.”
“Background: In vivo animal experiments demonstrate neurotoxicity of exposures to particulate matter (PM) and ozone, but only one small epidemiological study had linked ambient air pollution with central nervous system (CNS) functions in children.
Objectives: To examine the neurobehavioral effects associated with long-term exposure to ambient PM and ozone in adults.