Pure moments (7 5 Nm maximum) were applied in each plane to induc

Pure moments (7.5 Nm maximum) were applied in each plane to induce flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending while recording angular motion optoelectronically. Compression (400 N) was applied while upright foraminal height was measured.\n\nRESULTS: All instrumentation reduced angular range of motion (ROM) significantly from normal. The loading modes in which the ISA limited ROM most effectively were Stem Cell Compound Library concentration flexion and extension, where the ROM allowed was equivalent to that of pedicle screws-rods

(P > .08). The ISA was least effective in reducing lateral bending, with this mode reduced to 81% of normal. TLIF with unilateral pedicle screws-rod was the least stable configuration. Addition of the ISA to this construct significantly improved stability during flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation (P < .008). Constructs that included the ISA increased the foraminal

height an average of 0.7 mm more than the other constructs (P < .05).\n\nCONCLUSIONS: In cadaveric testing, the ISA limits flexion and extension equivalently to pedicle screws-rods. It also increases foraminal height. When used with TLIF, a construct of ISA or ISA plus unilateral pedicle screws-rod may offer an alternative to bilateral pedicle screws-rods for supplemental posterior fixation.”
“Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was used for removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Experiments were selleck screening library designed by response surface methodology (RSM) and a quadratic model CHIR99021 was used to predict the variables. The adsorption parameters such as adsorbent dosage, removal time, and initial ion concentration were used as the independent variables and their effects on heavy metal ion removal were investigated. Analysis of variance was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the models. Optimal conditions

with initial heavy metal ion concentration of 100, 92 and 270 mg/L, 120 s of removal time and 0.12 g of adsorbent amount resulted in 72.15%, 50.23%, and 91.35% removal efficiency for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The predictions of the model were in good agreement with experimental results and the Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was successfully used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.”
“Eismann T, Huber N, Shin T, Kuboki S, Galloway E, Wyder M, Edwards MJ, Greis KD, Shertzer HG, Fisher AB, Lentsch AB. Peroxiredoxin-6 protects against mitochondrial dysfunction and liver injury during ischemia-reperfusion in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G266-G274, 2009. First published November 25, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.90583.2008.-Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important complication of liver surgery and transplantation. Mitochondrial function is central to this injury. To examine alterations in mitochondrial function during I/R, we assessed the mitochondrial proteome in C57B1/6 mice.

The various registries report similar implant survivorships Howe

The various registries report similar implant survivorships. However, the reasons for the knee revisions have not been compared. The aims GSK2879552 order of this study were to assess the reasons for knee arthroplasty revisions from the five valid arthroplasty registries and to evaluate whether the reasons for revisions in each registry were similar. Methods: The reported reasons for

knee arthroplasty revisions were extracted from the arthroplasty registries of Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the National Joint Registry for England and Wales. The relevant data were identified from each arthroplasty registry’s annual reports. Results: All the arthroplasty registries collected data for each performed knee arthroplasty revision using a specific form. The information provided by the registries varied. The numbers of different variables for the revisions were wide-ranging (from 8-33). In addition to the different variables, the reported percentages between the registries had an extremely wide variation. Conclusion: The reasons for knee arthroplasty revisions are categorized differently in various arthroplasty registries, and there is a wide range of percentages presented. The differences in percentages may not be fully explained by the different outcome results in the different

countries. The heterogeneity of the registries may guide the recording of the reasons behind the revisions. There is a definite need to standardize the structure Selleckchem Small molecule library of the arthroplasty registries, and to validate the data therein. A larger collaboration between the registries MLN2238 mw is essential. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Common fragile sites (cFSs) are non-random chromosomal regions that are prone to breakage under conditions of replication stress. DNA damage and chromosomal alterations at cFSs appear to be critical events in the development of various human diseases, especially carcinogenesis. Despite the growing interest in

understanding the nature of cFS instability, only a few cFSs have been molecularly characterised. In this study, we fine-mapped the location of FRA2H using six-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation and showed that it is one of the most active cFSs in the human genome. FRA2H encompasses approximately 530 kb of a gene-poor region containing a novel large intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC097500.2). Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridisation, we detected gross and submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements involving FRA2H in a panel of 54 neuroblastoma, colon and breast cancer cell lines. The genomic alterations frequently involved different classes of long terminal repeats and long interspersed nuclear elements. An analysis of breakpoint junction sequence motifs predominantly revealed signatures of microhomology-mediated non-homologous recombination events.

pylori infection in real time The RGA-MS technique

pylori infection in real time. The RGA-MS technique Selleck Nocodazole should have broad applicability for C-13-breath tests in a wide range of biomedical research and clinical diagnostics for many other diseases and metabolic disorders.”
“BACKGROUND & AIMS: The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) is activated by the I kappa B kinase complex. The regulatory subunit of this complex, NF-kappa B essential modifier (NEMO or IKBKG), is a tumor suppressor. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of NEMO induces chronic liver inflammation that leads to apoptosis, oxidative stress, development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis,

and hepatocarcinogenesis. METHODS: We performed partial hepatectomies in mice with hepatocyte-specific disruption of NEMO (Nemo(Delta hepa)). Some mice were fed a diet that contained the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and others were given daily intraperitoneal injections of the oxidant phenetyl isothiocyanate (PEITC). RESULTS: Nemo(Delta hepa) mice had impaired liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and 50% mortality, indicating that NEMO is required for the regenerative response. Liver cells of the mice had a strong oxidative stress response; these cells down-regulated the NF-kappa B-dependent antioxidant response and reduced levels of proteins that repair DNA double-strand breaks. However, the impairments to hepatocyte proliferation were

compensated by a response of oval cells in Nemo(Delta hepa) mice. Oval cells expressed low levels of albumin and thereby expressed normal levels of NEMO. Repopulation of the liver with oval cells GSK690693 molecular weight that expressed NEMO reversed

liver damage in Nemo(Delta hepa) mice. Interestingly, these mice still developed hepatocellular carcinomas 6 months after partial hepatectomy, whereas Nemo(Delta hepa) mice fed the BHA diet were protected from carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: In livers of mice, expression of NEMO and activation of 3-deazaneplanocin A NF-kappa B are required for hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. These mechanisms require control of oxidative stress and DNA integrity.”
“This study aimed to validate a numerical model of an intact mandible for further development of a new TMJ implant. Numerical and experimental models of the biomechanics of the mandible were elaborated to characterize the human temporomandibular joint and to approach the development of a condyle implant. The model of the mandible was obtained through the use of a polymeric replica of a human cadaveric mandible and through 3D geometry acquisition. The three-dimensional finite element model was generated as a tetrahedral finite element mesh. The level of mesh refinement was established via a convergence test and a model with more than 50,000 degrees of freedom was required to obtain analysis accuracy. The functional loading cases included muscle loading in four different load boundary conditions. The same boundary conditions were applied to the experimental model.

A clear and consistent change was found in the manner in which pa

A clear and consistent change was found in the manner in which patients increased their ventilation during exercise after surgery. All patients showed an increase in tidal volume for a given ventilation rate, which was significant. The plication procedure reduced the respiratory rate for any exercise level in all patients, and this effect was more pronounced during exercise.\n\nCONCLUSIONS: In patients with hemidiaphragm paralysis who underwent a diaphragm plication exercise, tidal volumes increased and the ventilatory

frequency PF-04929113 purchase decreased. Despite this improvement, maximal exercise capacity remained unaltered.”
“This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of a PGPR strain, Bacillus subtilis 21-1 (BS21-1), under two different soil conditions for plant growth promotion and disease suppression. BS21-1 treatment significantly (P smaller than 0.05) promoted plant growth as measured by plant height and leaf width and increased the seed germination rate in organic soil (OS) compared with seed bed soil (SBS). In Chinese cabbage and lettuce, soft rot disease was reduced to 45 and 23.5 %, respectively, by BS21-1, and to 33 and 52.5 %, respectively, by benzo-(1,2,3)-thidiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester (BTH) treatments in OS compared with SBS. These levels of

disease suppression were greater than those found in the water-treated control upon pathogen challenge. There was a greater reduction of anthracnose lesions on the leaves of Elafibranor in vitro cucumber plants treated with BS21-1 and BTH in OS when compared with SBS. Botrytis rot disease in tomato caused by Botrytis cinerea was drastically reduced to 2 % in OS and 4 % in SBS by BS21-1 treatment. In the four plants studied, there was increased disease suppression in OS compared with SBS. Upon treatment with BS21-1, there was an increased expression Rigosertib solubility dmso of the PR-1a gene by beta-gulcuronidase (GUS) activity in tobacco (Nicotiana

tabacum L. cv. Xanthi-nc) plants in OS compared with SBS, which indicates a possible role of the SA pathway in BS21-1 mediated plant protection. Thus, the isolate BS21-1 could effectively be used as one of the biocontrol agents for disease suppression in four vegetable crops through systemic resistance and for plant growth promotion.”
“Nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagents and organolithium species to a 3-silyloxy-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine N-oxide provides trans-2,3-disubstituted N-hydroxypiperidines exclusively. The application of this methodology to the preparation of a diversity of useful trans-2-substituted-3-hydroxypiperidines, a concise synthesis of (+)-swainsonine, and an enantiopure 1-substituted quinolizidine of utility in target-directed synthesis is reported.”
“Purpose of review\n\nThis review summarizes recent findings on how HIV-1 infection affects dendritic cells in their ability to elicit innate and adaptive immune responses.

A total of 6

lots of finishing pigs from each of 6 finish

A total of 6

lots of finishing pigs from each of 6 finishing production farms were included in this study. For each lot studied, 30 individual fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum immediately before the pigs were transported to the abattoir, and 50 individual meat samples were Dinaciclib collected at slaughter. Individual fecal and meat juice samples were processed for detection of Salmonella and antibodies against Salmonella, respectively. All finishing production farms were Salmonella-positive in at least 2 fecal and 4 meat samplings. The overall bacteriologic prevalence was 12.9% (95% C.I. 8.0-17.8%), whereas the serologic prevalence was 35.4% (95% C.I. 24.5-46.4%; P<0.05). A wide variation in Salmonella prevalence (bacteriologic and serologic) between different finishing pig lots within production farms was observed, preventing the categorization of the production farms as either high or low Salmonella prevalence. This study shows that bacteriologic and serologic estimates of Salmonella prevalence are not

consistent among cohorts within the same production farm, suggesting that point estimates of Salmonella prevalence Anlotinib price in swine populations are not reliable. Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“Objective: To determine the most effective local anaesthetic method for manipulation of nasal fractures, and to compare the efficacy of local anaesthesia with that of general anaesthesia.\n\nMethod: Systematic review and meta-analysis.\n\nDatabases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, National Research Register and metaRegister of Controlled Trials.\n\nIncluded studies: We included randomised, controlled trials comparing general anaesthesia with local anaesthesia or comparing different local anaesthetic techniques. Non-randomised studies were also

systematically reviewed and appraised. No language restrictions Selleckchem Elacridar were applied.\n\nResults: Five randomised, controlled trials were included, three comparing general anaesthesia versus local anaesthesia and two comparing different local anaesthetic methods. No significant differences were found between local anaesthesia and general anaesthesia as regards pain, cosmesis or nasal patency. The least painful local anaesthetic method was topical tetracaine gel applied to the nasal dorsum together with topical intranasal cocaine solution. Minimal adverse events were reported with local anaesthesia.\n\nConclusions: Local anaesthesia appears to be a safe and effective alternative to general anaesthesia for pain relief during nasal fracture manipulation, with no evidence of inferior outcomes. The least uncomfortable local anaesthetic method included topical tetracaine gel.

Patupilone is a novel agent with promising activity in this commo

Patupilone is a novel agent with promising activity in this common cancer. Diarrhea represents the dose-limiting toxicity of patupilone. Measurement of intestinal permeability is one of the potential methods of non-invasive laboratory assessment of gastrointestinal toxicity. Methods: We have assessed intestinal Larotrectinib permeability by

measuring absorption of lactulose, mannitol and xylose in 27 previously treated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer enrolled in a phase I trial of patupilone. Results: Lactulose/mannitol and lactulose/xylose ratios increased after the treatment. Significantly higher lactulose/ mannitol ratio was observed in patients who had severe diarrhea. Moreover, patients who subsequently had an adverse event of grade 3 or higher had significantly higher baseline lactulose/mannitol or lactulose/xylose ratios. PX-478 research buy Conclusions: Measurement of intestinal permeability using the lactulose/mannitol test may represent a biomarker for the monitoring, or even prediction of toxicity of cytotoxic drugs, including patupilone.”
“In a previous report, we identified Sebox as a new candidate maternal effect gene that is essential for embryonic development and primarily impacts the two-cell (2C) stage. The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism of action for Sebox in this capacity, as shown by changes in the expression levels of other known MEG mRNAs after Sebox RNA interference

(RNAi) in GDC-0994 MAPK inhibitor oocytes. Sebox-knockdown metaphase II (Mll) oocytes displayed normal morphology, but among the 23 MEGs monitored,

8 genes were upregulated, and 15 genes were unchanged. We hypothesized that the perturbed gene expression of these MEGs may cause the arrest of embryo development at the 2C stage and examined the expression of several marker genes for the degradation of maternal factors and zygotic genome activation. We found that some maternal mRNAs, c-mos, Gbx2, and Gdf9, were not fully degraded in Sebox-knockdown 2C embryos, and that several zygotic genome activation markers, Mt1a, Rpl23, Ube2a and Wee1, were not fully expressed in conjunction with diminished embryonic transcriptional activity. In addition, Sebox may be involved in the formation of the subcortical maternal complex through its regulation of the upstream regulator, Figla. Therefore, we concluded that Sebox is important in preparing oocytes for embryonic development by orchestrating the expression of other important MEGs.”
“Objective: In previous studies, we defined groups of subjects with opposite salivary function. Group membership was associated with clinically relevant outcomes. High aggregation-adherence (HAA) groups showed lower levels of caries, supragingival plaque, total streptococci, and Tannerella forsythensis than low high aggregation-adherence (LAA) groups. In this study, we used a proteomic approach to search for biomarkers which could be useful as risk indicators for those outcomes.

Moreover, out of 103 completers, only 41 (39 8%) patients present

Moreover, out of 103 completers, only 41 (39.8%) patients presented no missing visits and 25 (24.3%) presented two absences. These patients did not differ in clinical and demographic characteristics; thus, absences were probably circumstantial (e.g., traffic congestion, personal obligations). ConclusionsAbsences during the acute tDCS treatment phase are common, which support the use of flexible schedules in future tDCS trials as to minimize attrition. Also, further studies should access whether higher number of absences can compromise optimal tDCS efficacy.”
“The objective of this study

was to determine the impact of lowering nitrogen supply from ARN-509 chemical structure 12 to 6 or 4 mM NO(3)(-) on tomato fruit yield and quality during the growing season. Lowering nitrogen supply had a low impact on fruit commercial yield (-7.5%), but it reduced plant vegetative growth and increased fruit dry matter content, improving consequently fruit quality. Fruit quality was improved due to lower acid (10-16%) and increased soluble sugar content (5-17%). The content of some phenolic compounds AZD8931 concentration (rutin, a caffeic acid glycoside, and a caffeic acid derivate) and total ascorbic acid tended to be higher

in fruit with the lowest nitrogen supply, but differences were significant in only a few cases (trusses). With regard to carotenoids, data did not show significant and univocal differences related to different levels of nitrogen supply. Thus, reducing nitrogen fertilization limited environmental pollution, on the one hand, and may improve, on the other hand, both growers’ profits, by limiting nitrogen inputs, and fruit quality for consumers, by increasing tomato sugars content. It was concluded that primary and secondary metabolites could be affected as a result of a specific response to low nitrogen, Kinase Inhibitor Library manufacturer combined with a lower degree of vegetative development, increasing fruit irradiance, and therefore modifying fruit composition.”
“We present a new four dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the CN(X-2 Sigma(+))-(H)2 system. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. Potential energy was obtained

from the electronic structure calculations using a partially spin-restricted coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations method. The four atoms were described using the augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aug-cc-pVTZ) basis sets augmented with mid-bond functions for improved description of van der Waals interactions. The global minimum is characterized by the well depth of 121.36 cm(-1) for the linear CN center dot center dot center dot H-2 structure. The zero-order corrected dissociation energies D-0 are 27.73 cm(-1) and 38.75 cm(-1) for the complex with para-and ortho-H-2, respectively. These theoretical results obtained using our new PES are in excellent agreement with experimental values [Y. Chen and M. C. Heaven, J. Chem. Phys. 109, 5171 (1998)].

“Impact of long-term biosolids application on soil-living

“Impact of long-term biosolids application on soil-living micro-organisms key players of ecosystemic services is scarcely reported. Here,

the impact of the 19 year-long application of farmyard manure (FM) and sewage sludge (SS) organic fertilisation regimes on the protocatechuate-degrading bacterial (pca) community was estimated by comparison to a mineral fertilisation regime (U). The structure, diversity and density of the pca community were determined using pcaH, a gene encoding the protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase. Ten years after the last application, the structure of the pca community in soils amended with 55100 (100 t/ha/2 years) and to a lesser extent with FM (10 t/ha/year) was still different from that in U treatment. pcaH amplicons from all treatments were cloned, screened by RFLP and sequenced. The GW786034 datasheet diversity was studied by Shannon-Weiner and Simpson indexes and by rarefaction curves estimated from pcaH library analyses, showing that the pcaH community was impacted in SS10 and SS100, compared to U. The sequencing of pcaH amplicons supports the results from the RFLP analysis. Quantification of the abundance of the pca community by qPCR assays showed selleck inhibitor a significant increase in SS100 in comparison to U. FM and SS10. Overall, 10 years after the last application, the impact of 19 years’ organic fertilisation on the

pcaH community was still traceable, highlighting the lack of resilience of this functional community. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) remains refractory to available surgical and medical interventions. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are an emerging targeted therapy with antiproliferative activity in a variety of thyroid cancer cell lines. Thailandepsin A (TDP-A) is a novel class I HDAC inhibitor whose efficacy remains largely unknown in ATC. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the effect of TDP-A on ATC. Methods: Human-derived ATC cells were treated with TDP-A. IC50

was determined by a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) rapid colorimetric assay, and cell proliferation was measured by viable cell count. Molecular NU7026 chemical structure mechanisms of cell growth inhibition were investigated by Western blot analysis of canonical apoptosis markers, intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis regulators, and cell cycle regulatory proteins. Cell cycle staging was determined with propidium iodide flow cytometry. Results: TDP-A dose- and time-dependently reduced cell proliferation. Increased cleavage of the apoptosis markers Caspase-9, Caspase-3, and poly adenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase were observed with TDP-A treatment. Levels of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway proteins BAD, Bcl-XL, and BAX remained unchanged.

Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was ex

Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. Flavopiridol price The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a

deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist AZD1208 price in the clean rooms even after the imposition

of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.”
“Few intergalactic, plausibly primordial clouds of neutral atomic hydrogen ( H I) have been found in the local Universe, suggesting that such structures have either dispersed, become ionized or produced a stellar population on gigayear timescales. The Leo ring(1,2), a massive (M(HI) approximate to 1.8 x 10(9) M., M. denoting PF-02341066 concentration the solar mass), 200- kpc- wide structure orbiting the galaxies M105 and NGC 3384 with a 4- Gyr period, is a candidate primordial cloud. Despite repeated atttempts(3,4),

it has previously been seen only from HI emission, suggesting the absence of a stellar population. Here we report the detection of ultraviolet light from gaseous substructures of the Leo ring, which we attribute to recent massive star formation. The ultraviolet colour of the detected complexes is blue, implying the onset of a burst of star formation or continuous star formation of moderate (similar to 10(8)-yr) duration. Measured ultraviolet visible photometry favours models with low metallicity (Z approximate to Z./ 50-Z./5, Z. denoting the solar metallicity), that is, a low proportion of elements heavier than helium, although spectroscopic confirmation is needed. We speculate that the complexes are dwarf galaxies observed during their formation, but distinguished by their lack of a dark matter component(5). In this regard, they resemble tidal dwarf galaxies, although without the enrichment preceding tidal stripping. If structures like the Leo ring were common in the early Universe, they may have produced a large, yet undetected, population of faint, metal- poor, halo- lacking dwarf galaxies.

Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that extracts from M arven

Conclusion: It is therefore suggested that extracts from M. arvensis could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity, such as in the case of aminoglycosides, constituting a new weapon against bacterial resistance to antibiotics, as with chlorpromazine.”
“Background. Albuminuria is a sensitive marker of renal derangement and has been included in a number of studies investigating chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). This study is aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performances of a strip for measuring the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in the general population and to compare it with those found in

a diabetic population.\n\nMethods. Urine samples were obtained click here from 201 consecutive subjects enrolled in an epidemiological study and from 259 type 2 diabetic patients. Urine was tested for albumin and creatinine using the strip (Clinitek Microalbumin) and laboratory methods. A hundred samples were stored under various conditions to assess analyte stability.\n\nResults. In the general population, the strip test reached a 90% sensitivity and 91% specificity, considering the laboratory method as the ‘gold standard’, sparing > 80% of subjects the laboratory tests at the expense of a 1% false negative rate and an 8% false positive rate. Regarding sensitivity and specificity, the ACR test performs very similarly in the general

population and in the diabetics. The stability study showed that storage at -20 Selleck BEZ235 degrees C induced a significant decrease in

the albumin concentration with both methods, such that 5% of the samples were re-classified in the lower ACR class. Storage at -80 degrees C for up to 12 months did not affect the measurement with both methods.\n\nConclusion. Clinitek Microalbumin strips can be used for screening purposes in the general population since they correctly classify a significant percentage of subjects, particularly those with a normal albuminuria. Storage at -80 degrees C does not affect strip results. Screening with the strip and confirming positive results with a wet chemistry method are an efficient strategy for detecting albuminuria in the general population.”
“Objective: To compare the PF-03084014 mw efficacy and tolerability of surgical excision and radiotherapy with those of cryotherapy and intralesional steroid treatment of keloids. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-six patients with a total of 76 keloids were enrolled in this study. Nineteen patients with 44 keloids underwent surgical excision combined with immediate 12-Gy irradiation (group A) while the remaining 9 patients with 32 keloids received multiple sessions of intralesional steroid treatment after cryotherapy which continued until flattening of lesion(s) occurred (group B). Two patients were included in both treatment groups. All patients were followed up at regular intervals for at least 1 year.