Arefayene et al (2009) recently demonstrated that this polymorph

Arefayene et al. (2009) recently demonstrated that this polymorphism resulted in significantly reduced protein expression and enzyme activity. Genotyping

was performed by Prevention Genetics (Marshfiled, MA, USA) using allele-specific PCR with universal energy transfer-labeled primers (Myakishev et al., 2001). Additionally, a set of 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), which exhibit a high level of allele frequency difference among the three founder populations of the Brazilian individuals (Europeans, West-Africans and Native Americans) (Shriver et al., 2005 and Guindalini et al., 2006), were selected for genetic admixture analyzes. The number of ancestral populations (K) among the sample and individual admixture proportions was estimated using the Bayesian Markov Chain–Monte Carlo (MCMC) method implemented find more in the STRUCTURE 2.1 program selleck inhibitor (Pritchard et al., 2000). The program was run under the admixture model, using correlated allele frequencies and no prior population information with a burn-in of 100,000 interactions and 1000,000 interactions after

burn-in. Genotyping of all markers was performed using the same method described above. Only genotypes with a level of confidence ⩾90% were included in the analysis. Student’s T tests and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for differences between groups in sociodemographic and clinical features. Fisher exact test was performed for analysis of categorical variables. Continuous data were evaluated with T tests and presented as mean ± S.D. (standard deviation). The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the genotypic analyses were derived from multivariate logistic regression models using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v15.0. Two-tailed hypotheses were used with a statistical significance level set at p < 0.05. The study was approved by the Medical Review Ethics Committees of UFBA and UNIFESP and performed Teicoplanin in accordance with the ethical standards set in the 1996 Declaration of Helsinki, and with Resolution 196/96 on research involving human subjects. All patients had provided written informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. During the

first stage of the study, 759 medical charts were screened. Two hundred and thirty-six HCV subjects were excluded because they had never been treated, 17 were older than 65, 4 had only been treated with IFN-α (without RBV; e.g., chronic renal failure and sickle cell anemia), 5 patients had schizophrenia, 2 had bipolar disorder, 4 had already been diagnosed with depression, 20 were excluded for co-infections, 12 for neurological conditions, 7 for cancer, and 9 were classified as Child-Pugh B. Finally, 412 patients were eligible to participate in the study: 113 could not be contacted for the second screening; 4 demonstrated some intellectual deficit and were therefore unable to understand the purpose of the study; and 27 refused to participate.

The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused

The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“The Chesapeake Bay (CB), located near the mid-Atlantic Bight along the US East Coast, is a partially mixed estuary and the largest in the United States. The Bay is approximately 320 km long from its entrance to its head at the mouth of the Susquehanna River. Its width varies from a few kilometers in the Northern Bay to 20 km at the Bay mouth with its widest point, just south of the Potomac River mouth, spanning 45 km (Fig. 1). CB is a complicated estuarine system with shorelines exceeding 7000 km that is comprised of many sub-estuaries and that allows discharge from approximately

fifty tributaries. The total freshwater inputs to the CB system are on the averages of 2570 m3 s−1, see more derived predominantly from the northern and

western shores, with a small portion entering from the eastern shore; the most notable of these are the Susquehanna, Patuxent, Potomac, Rappahannock, Dasatinib York, James, and Choptank Rivers. Nearly the same amount of seawater as freshwater outflow enters the Bay through the entrance from the mid-Atlantic Bight shelf waters (Boicourt, 1973, Wang and Elliott, 1978 and Valle-Levinson, 1995). These exchange processes at the mouth of CB are influenced by astronomical tides, atmospheric forcing, buoyancy forcing, and bathymetric features (Valle-Levinson and Lwiza, 1997, Valle-Levinson and Wilson, 1994, Valle-Levinson et al., 2001, Valle-Levinson et al., 2002 and Valle-Levinson et al., 2003). The mean rate of exchange between the ocean and the Bay is approximately 8 × 103 m3 s−1 (Austin, 2002). Within our recent history, CB was hit by two tropical cyclones, Hurricane

Floyd in 1999 and Hurricane Isabel in 2003, both of which made landfall in North Carolina as Category 2 hurricanes (Table 1). These two hurricanes had ambivalent tracks Cediranib (AZD2171) (Fig. 2): Floyd’s track was nearly parallel to the coast, corresponding to an eastern-type storm, whereas Isabel’s track was perpendicular to the coast, corresponding to a western-type storm. Eastern-type hurricanes that travel to the east of the Bay generate a maximum surge in the southern portion of the Bay, whereas western-type hurricanes that pass to the west of the Bay create the highest surge in the northern part of the Bay (Pore, 1960, Pore, 1965, Wang et al., 2005, Shen et al., 2005, Shen et al., 2006a and Shen et al., 2006b). The response of the Bay to a moving hurricane is characterized by volume and salt influxes from the ocean initiated by remote winds, locally wind-induced vertical mixing, buoyancy effects induced by heavy rains, and freshwater inflows under gravitational circulation, and are accompanied by storm-induced barotropic/baroclinic flow motions (Valle-Levinson et al., 1998 and Valle-Levinson et al., 2002).

e around 1 Å for hard X-rays Ptychographic CDI is an emerging i

e. around 1 Å for hard X-rays. Ptychographic CDI is an emerging iterative phase retrieval method with no fundamental limitation in sample size, which provides the complex sample transmission function. Ptychographic CDI has recently been combined with a CT setup for ptychographic (X-ray) CT, where the LCN of the

femoral mid-diaphysis in the mouse has been retrieved at an isotropic voxel size of 65 nm [26], offering a continuous representation of individual canaliculi. In addition to the reconstructed LCN morphology, the local mineral density was simultaneously reconstructed in the same experiment by ptychographic CT in terms of (absolute) electron density with fluctuations of less than 0.2% corresponding to less than 5 mg/cm3 in mass density. A key problem, which is common to all the CT-based techniques described above, selleck inhibitor is their limited field of view (FOV) which adversely affects the assessment of larger tissue volumes, containing for example a representative segment of the osteocyte network and/or the LCN. One concept to overcome this limitation in 3D

at a sufficiently high resolution is the strategy to go back to the elementary direct imaging method of consecutive physical probe sectioning and imaging, similar to conventional histology based on light microscopy. see more However, the imaging approach must have improved spatial resolution compared to light microscopy and it must be automated in order to resolve the intracortical and intratrabecular Nutlin-3 clinical trial bone microstructure in a relevant volume. One implementation of this concept is serial focused ion beam/SEM (FIB/SEM). In serial FIB/SEM, several thin sections in the 10 nm range are milled away from the sample’s block face using a focused ion beam, which replaces the diamond knife for mechanical cutting in traditional histology. These sections are then scanned

by SEM. When applied in a serial and automated fashion, a 3D reconstruction of the specimen can be generated at EM resolution. FIB systems have been mostly used in materials science and in the semiconductor industry since the early 1980s, and the application of serial FIB/SEM has broadened with the automation of the dual beam FIB/SEM imaging process in the mid-2000s, including research fields in the life sciences, especially in the neurosciences [27]. Regarding hard tissue characterization, serial FIB/SEM has been broadly employed to study dental/implant interfaces and bone/implant interfaces. Moreover, Earl et al. lately examined the intradental tubule network, including major, fine, and microbranches from the micrometer range down to several hundred nanometers in diameter [28], similar to the dimensions of the canaliculi in bone. The first attempt to image the LCN in bone goes back to Stokes et al. [29], where the representation of the canaliculi (species not specified) was fragmentary only. More recently, Schneider et al.

PAD is present in 50% of diabetic patients with ulcerative wounds

PAD is present in 50% of diabetic patients with ulcerative wounds and is a widely recognised risk factor for major amputations. The negative prognosis of ischaemic selleck kinase inhibitor ulcerative lesions in diabetic patients is probably related to the co-existence of factors such as the anatomical distribution of PAD, infection, neuropathy and renal insufficiency and the concomitant presence of other coronary and cerebral vascular manifestations. About 27% of diabetic subjects with PAD experience progressive disease in the following 5 years, and 4% undergo major amputation; about 20% manifest a cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction or stroke). The prognosis of diabetic patients with

critical limb ischaemia (CLI) is even more serious as 30% may require a major amputation and 20% die of cardiovascular disease within 1 year [41]. Non-revascularisation of PAD diabetic patients is an independent predictive factor of amputation [16] and also an independent determinant of poor survival [18]. The risk of co-existing ischaemic heart disease in diabetic patients with PAD is 50% [42], [43] and [44]. The simultaneous presence of silent and non-silent myocardial ischaemia is significantly

more frequent in diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects [45] and [46], which means that all diabetic patients with PAD should undergo diagnostic investigations of the coronary district in order to identify any previously CAL-101 unknown coronary disease. Diabetic patients with PAD have frequently a concomitant chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) requiring haemodialysis, which means that the vascular damage is more severe and progresses more rapidly than in diabetic patients without end-stage renal disease. Renal disease is one of the most important factors underlying the

unfavourable course of an ulcerative lesion, and dialysis is 6-phosphogluconolactonase one of the main risk factors for ulceration and amputation in diabetic patients [3] and [47]. Distal revascularisation in dialysed patients is a challenge because they are more susceptible to infections, uraemia further hinders the healing of ulcerative lesions and PAD is complicated by the presence of marked calcifications of the vessel walls. Furthermore, the risk of major amputation is 4.7 times higher than in non-dialysed subjects [8]. Diabetic subjects with renal insufficiency also experience more perioperative complications such as sepsis and heart failure, and there is a high rate of mortality due to surgical revascularisation (2.4–13%) [8]. However, despite the complexity of the local and general management of diabetic PAD patients undergoing dialysis, recent data show that 1-year limb salvage can be as high as 65–75%. [48] • Diabetic patients rarely experience the early symptomatic manifestation of PAD (claudication) because of the frequent concomitance of sensitive motor neuropathy. In the case of suspected PAD, a number of examinations need to be carried in order to assess the severity of the clinical picture.

For example, for the discharge simulation at Victoria Falls durin

For example, for the discharge simulation at Victoria Falls during calibration period Harrison and Whittington (2002) obtained a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.61, which is lower than the results presented here with R2 of 0.88. Similarly, Winsemius et al. (2006) report for their two models a Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiency NSE of 0.72 and 0.82 respectively, whereas we obtained a slightly higher performance with NSE of 0.88. Note that Winsemius et al. did only Venetoclax mw apply their model to the upper Zambezi and did not focus on impact modelling. Unfortunately, the other impact modelling studies of the

whole Zambezi basin ( Hoekstra, 2003, Yamba et al., 2011 and Beck and Bernauer, 2011) do not report performance statistics. However, we believe that the model simulations presented here are among the most accurate – if not best – models for simulation of Zambezi discharge currently available. The exact reason for the higher model performance as compared to previous studies remains unclear. It may be related to improved input data (GPCC), calibration method, consideration of wetlands and river routing. The latter two are important for simulation of timing of Zambezi discharge (Cohen-Liechti et al., 2014) and would cause serious modelling problems if not explicitly considered, with the risk of corrupting parameter values to obtain simulations that are “right for the wrong reason” (Refsgaard and ATM/ATR assay Henriksen, 2004). The higher performance

is most likely not related to the structure of the water balance model (see Fig. 4, left), as here the applied models are all very similar in the various studies. The evaluation of historic discharge conditions (see Fig. 5 and Fig. 6) also shows the considerable impact of the large reservoirs and the problem of reservoir operation; where (ad hoc?) release decisions at upstream reservoirs complicate simulation of downstream discharge. Different sets of operation rules would have to be applied to different time periods, but instead fixed operation rules – as effective during the 2000s – were imposed on the model. Therefore, simulations in the downstream sections (e.g. at Tete) frequently show

deviations to observations. Due to the above mentioned peculiarities of Zambezi discharge in downstream sections, we focussed PLEK2 on the simulation results averaged over the land-surface – thereby excluding the confounding impacts of reservoirs – to learn more about the hydrology in the context of the seasonal water balance (see Fig. 9). The hydrology in the Zambezi basin is characterized by representing a water limited system – as opposed to energy limited. Already under historic climate the potential evapotranspiration cannot be met by the actual evapotranspiration (see Fig. 9), simply because there is not enough water stored in the soil due to insufficient annual precipitation amounts. Therefore, any increases in temperature – and consequently increases in potential evapotranspiration – have a small impact on discharge.

However, indirect effects of nutrient pollution are profound For

However, indirect effects of nutrient pollution are profound. For example, phototrophic hard corals can be out-competed by other benthic primary producers in high nutrient environments, leading to the establishment of macro-algae. High nutrient availability generally leads to increases in phytoplankton populations which in extreme cases reduce benthic light availability and cause seasonal hypoxia (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Resultant organic enrichment can

cause a shift to heterotrophic and/or filter JAK2 inhibitors clinical trials feeding communities, and plays a role in driving population outbreaks of the coral-eating crown-of-thorns starfish (Fabricius, 2011), one of the main causes of coral cover declines on the Great Barrier Reef (De’ath et al., 2012). Overall, eutrophication can result in increased coral disease (Sutherland et al., 2004 and Vega Thurber et al., 2013) and mortality, Selleck BTK inhibitor and contribute to loss of coral diversity, structure and function, including phase shifts to macroalgae (Fabricius, 2011). The reduction of siltation and eutrophication of coastal marine ecosystems by better managing agricultural sources at local and regional scales is a challenge for coastal communities around the world (Boesch, 2002 and Cloern, 2001), including those bordering coral reefs (Brodie et al., 2012). Globally, substantial effort is going into re-establishing environmental flows (Postel and Richter,

2003). In headwater catchments, more natural flow regimes are being reinstated through, for example, including high flows in dam releases (Rood et al.,

2005) and removing small dams and weirs (Stanley and Doyle, 2003). Ecological outcomes in downstream reaches have been documented within a year, and include formation of new river channels, restored riparian vegetation, and improved fish passage and spawning habitat (Rood et al., 2005 and Stanley and Doyle, 2003). Restoration of more natural flow regimes to coastal marine waters is being attempted through, for example, removal of large dams (Service, 2011), buying back irrigation water (Pincock, 2010) or agricultural land (Stokstad, 2008), and restoration PLEKHB2 of coastal floodplains (Buijse et al., 2002). Such larger-scale interventions have only commenced in recent years, and consequently, we were unable to find any documented examples of restored freshwater flow regimes into coastal waters (Table 1a). Nevertheless, while it is expected that freshwater flows should return to more natural regimes almost immediately, recovery of associated physical and biological processes may take years to decades (Hart et al., 2002). Despite significant investment in sediment erosion and transport control measures (Bernhardt et al., 2005), we found only one documented example of reductions in net fluxes of sediment reaching coastal marine waters following land-based restoration efforts (Tables 1b and 2).

Venom was collected according to da Silveira et al (2002), poole

Venom was collected according to da Silveira et al. (2002), pooled and stored at −20 °C until use. Protein concentration was determined by Bradford method ( Bradford, 1976). L. laeta, Loxosceles intermedia and Loxosceles gaucho Brazilian mature spiders were collected in the region of Curitiba, PR, Brazil and maintained at the Centro de Produção e Pesquisa de Imunobiológicos (CPPI) of the State of Paraná, Brazil. The venoms from mature spiders were obtained as described before. Phoneutria nigriventer spiders and Tityus serrulatus scorpions were collected in the region of Belo

Horizonte and maintained at the “Seção de Animais Peçonhentos” of Ezequiel Dias Foundation (FUNED) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The crude

venoms were obtained by electric stimulation, lyophilized and stored at −20 °C in the dark until use. Two commercial antivenoms were used for the neutralization assay, the antivenom produced in CPPI, Brazil Crizotinib datasheet (Lot. S02100) against BLlv, L. intermedia and L. gaucho venoms and an antivenom produced by Instituto Nacional de Salud del Perú (INS) (Lot. 0300069), containing antibodies against PLlv. The lethality was assessed via intradermal (i.d.) route. Groups of four mice were injected with different doses of venoms (0.4, 0.56, 0.784, 1.098, 1.537, 2.152 mg per kg of body weight) dissolved in 0.1 mL of PBS-BSA 0.5%. Seventy-two hours later deaths were recorded and the LD50 was then calculated by Probit analysis (Finney, 1971). The dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic AZD0530 datasheet and edematogenic activities of PLlv and BLlv were determined by intradermal injection of 10 μg of crude venom in 100 μL of PBS pH 7.2 into the shaved back of

five rabbits for each venom, as described by Furlanetto (1962). Injection of PBS alone was used as negative control. The diameters of dermonecrotic, hemorrhagic and edematogenic lesions were measured in the skin areas with a scale meter and caliper rule, 72 h after injection. Three measures of each lesion were made and their arithmetic mean was considered the mean diameter of the lesion. The sphingomyelinase (SMase) activity was measured using the Amplex Red Sphingomyelinase Assay Kit (Invitrogen) as previously described (Gatt et al., 1978; Binford et al., 2009). Briefly, different amounts Anacetrapib of the venoms (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 μg) were assayed in triplicates. Varion Cary eclipse fluorescence spectrophotometer was used to measure the fluorescence emission from the reactions. Protein profile of PLlv and BLlv was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis using the IPG-SDS-PAGE system ( Gorg, 1993). The venom was solubilized in lysis buffer containing 8 M urea, 2 M thiourea, 4% w/v CHAPS, 65 mM dithioerythritol, 40 mM Tris, 0.002% bromophenol blue, protease inhibitor and 1% of IPG buffer. Nonlinear immobilized pH 3–10 gradient IPG strips were rehydrated with 100 μg of the venom for 4 h (no electric field) and then for 12 h at 30 V.

The newly identified regulatory pathway links glucose and iron me

The newly identified regulatory pathway links glucose and iron metabolism in the liver and identifies hepcidin, the iron hormone, as a gluconeogenic sensor. PPARGC1A is a transcriptional

coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. During starvation, PPARGC1A readily is activated to turn on the gluconeogenic machinery, but also to stimulate PFT�� cell line mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration,36 which are essential to support the increased energy demands. Interestingly, in osteoclasts, mitochondrial biogenesis involves CREB/PPARGC1A proteins, but requires iron uptake and supply to mitochondrial respiratory proteins.37 Here, we found that PPARGC1A constitutively occupies the Forskolin nmr hepcidin promoter and, in response to gluconeogenic stimuli, stabilizes CREBH binding and transactivates HAMP promoter. CREBH is an ER stress–associated liver-specific transcription factor originally involved in the induction of acute-phase

response genes (such as serum amyloid protein and C-reactive protein38), and subsequently has been found to activate the transcription of HAMP. 17 Based on recent publications and this report, CREBH now emerges as a key metabolic regulator in the liver: it is activated by fatty acids and PPARα, 39 and 40 and regulates the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and lipolysis under metabolic stress. 20 Interestingly, CREBH also has been found to transcriptionally regulate Pck1 and glucose-6-phosphatase, the critical genes in hepatic

gluconeogenic response. 41 Here, we report that CREBH is engaged Decitabine purchase constitutively on the hepcidin promoter to sense metabolic gluconeogenic stress and modify, accordingly, iron traffic. Of note is that starving Creb3l3 null mice show reduced glucose and increased ketone body output. Adaptation to starvation is essential for species survival.42 Seemingly, defense against pathogens represents a priority in species evolution. The liver, as the main source for hepcidin, seems to play a central role in both processes. During infection, hepcidin limits vital iron that is needed by invading microorganisms, thus contributing to host defense.25 During prolonged starvation, hepcidin likely preserves tissue iron and helps to maintain energy balance and support gluconeogenesis in the liver (this report). Most likely, this response originally evolved to protect human beings during food withdrawal. Paradoxically, in human disorders associated with food excess and storage, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome, persistently activated gluconeogenesis may result in overstimulation of hepcidin, iron accumulation, and potential damage.

In conclusion, osteopontin, a chemotactic protein with cytokine-l

In conclusion, osteopontin, a chemotactic protein with cytokine-like properties was found to be up-regulated in muscle injury caused by B. lanceolatus (fer-de-lance) snake. The upregulation of OPN occurred during the acute stage of inflammation and during myogenic cell proliferation and differentiation. The expression of OPN by cells

of a myogenic lineage, macrophages and fibroblasts agrees with its role as an adhesive chemotactic matricellular protein with cytokine-like properties that can modulate the expression of myogenic transcriptional factors and, hence, muscle regeneration. In our experimental model, three weeks after envenoming, the regenerating fibers were small, indicating delayed regeneration. Since OPN has been also described as pro-fibrotic protein in adverse conditions, its possible mediation Selleck Dasatinib in collagen deposition in the region of myoblast proliferation Staurosporine needs to be investigated. As far as we know, this is the only report to associate OPN expression in a rat model of muscle regeneration after the intramuscular injection of Bothrops snake venom. The authors have no conflict of interest related to this work. The authors thank Marta B. Leonardo, MSc, and Glauce Aparecida Pinto, PhD, for excellent technical assistance and Dr. Stephen Hyslop for criticism and revising the language. This work was supported by a grant from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo

(FAPESP, grant no. 2005/60929-7). V.B.S. was supported by an MSc studentship from Coordenação de selleck Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Brazil. S.P.I. was a post-doctoral researcher in the Venom and Toxin Laboratory of M.A.C.H. M.A.C.H. is supported by a research fellowship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Brazil. “
“Microcystins (MCs) are a group of natural toxins produced by cyanobacteria which can be found in lakes, ponds and rivers. These cyanotoxins are hepatotoxic, causing serious human health problems by inhibition of some phosphatase proteins (Terao et al., 1994). MCs cause morphologic damage in the liver, starting with cytoskeletal disruption and loss of sinusoidal

structure. Liver weight is increased due to intrahepatic hemorrhage followed by hemodynamic shock, heart failure and death by hemorrhagic shock (Eriksson et al., 1990 and Chorus and Bartram, 1999). Zhang et al. (2008), demonstrated the role of reactive oxygen species induced by MC-RR on apoptosis sensitivity of Carassius auratus lymphocytes. In Brazil, tilapia species such as Tilapia rendalli and Oreochromis niloticus have been introduced for socioeconomic purposes since 1956 ( Gurgel and Fernando, 1994). Bioaccumulations in fish were observed in salmon that ate crab larvae containing MC ( Williams et al., 1997). Accumulation in liver and muscle of T. rendalli was demonstrated by Soares et al. (2004). This latter study showed that toxins could still be found in fish muscle several days after contamination.

The effect of ball-milling time of maize starch in either a ceram

The effect of ball-milling time of maize starch in either a ceramic or stainless steel pot on CWS is shown in Fig. 1. Results showed that the longer the milling time, the greater the CWS. Interestingly, the CWS of maize starch increased quickly through the first 3 h of milling but then slowed thereafter. This result is likely due to the fact that the ball becomes ensconced by the maize starch as the ball-milling time increases thus decreasing the crushing power Selleck Staurosporine of the ball as time increases. The observed increase in CWS of maize starch results in a greater viscosity, a smoother texture, and increases the processing tolerance as compared

to the traditional pregelatinized maize starch. The types of pot used in the milling process did not significantly affect CWS. However, following this website 5 h of ball-milling CWS increased quite dramatically in the ceramic pot (72.6%) and in the stainless steel pot (70.7%), as compared to the untreated maize starches (2.9%) (p < 0.05). This observed increase in CWS of the maize starch as the milling time increased is consistent with previous models showing that mechanical agitation is capable of degrading the crystalline regions of the starch thus allowing a greater entry of

water into the interior of the starch granule. The low CWS of untreated maize starch can be attributed to it having a more rigid structure and greater amylose Aldol condensation content [5] and [10]. We next investigated the X-ray diffraction spectra of maize starch

milled in ceramic and stainless steel pots with various CWS (30%, 45%, 60%, and 75%) (Fig. 2). The spectrum of the untreated starch sample shows two peaks at 18θ and 22θ, presumably reflecting the crystalline and amorphism regions in the starch. As the CWS of the starch increases the regions of amorphism become larger and larger at the expense of the crystalline regions, causing the diffraction pattern to decrease. This result shows that maize starch treated by ball-milling has been converted largely into a non-crystalline state. Consequently, the diffraction spectrum shows a broad, featureless peak typical of amorphism, indicating that during the ball-milling treatment the crystalline molecular structure of maize starch is destroyed and converted largely into a non-crystalline (amorphous) state. Of importance to this study, however, starch in a non-crystalline state has a higher CWS. Taken together, these results indicate that the ball-milling treatment of maize starch improves its physicochemical properties thus increasing its possible industrial applications because the market actually prefers starches with less extensive crystalline regions.