Arefayene et al. (2009) recently demonstrated that this polymorphism resulted in significantly reduced protein expression and enzyme activity. Genotyping
was performed by Prevention Genetics (Marshfiled, MA, USA) using allele-specific PCR with universal energy transfer-labeled primers (Myakishev et al., 2001). Additionally, a set of 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), which exhibit a high level of allele frequency difference among the three founder populations of the Brazilian individuals (Europeans, West-Africans and Native Americans) (Shriver et al., 2005 and Guindalini et al., 2006), were selected for genetic admixture analyzes. The number of ancestral populations (K) among the sample and individual admixture proportions was estimated using the Bayesian Markov Chain–Monte Carlo (MCMC) method implemented find more in the STRUCTURE 2.1 program selleck inhibitor (Pritchard et al., 2000). The program was run under the admixture model, using correlated allele frequencies and no prior population information with a burn-in of 100,000 interactions and 1000,000 interactions after
burn-in. Genotyping of all markers was performed using the same method described above. Only genotypes with a level of confidence ⩾90% were included in the analysis. Student’s T tests and Fisher’s exact test were used to test for differences between groups in sociodemographic and clinical features. Fisher exact test was performed for analysis of categorical variables. Continuous data were evaluated with T tests and presented as mean ± S.D. (standard deviation). The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the genotypic analyses were derived from multivariate logistic regression models using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) v15.0. Two-tailed hypotheses were used with a statistical significance level set at p < 0.05. The study was approved by the Medical Review Ethics Committees of UFBA and UNIFESP and performed Teicoplanin in accordance with the ethical standards set in the 1996 Declaration of Helsinki, and with Resolution 196/96 on research involving human subjects. All patients had provided written informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. During the
first stage of the study, 759 medical charts were screened. Two hundred and thirty-six HCV subjects were excluded because they had never been treated, 17 were older than 65, 4 had only been treated with IFN-α (without RBV; e.g., chronic renal failure and sickle cell anemia), 5 patients had schizophrenia, 2 had bipolar disorder, 4 had already been diagnosed with depression, 20 were excluded for co-infections, 12 for neurological conditions, 7 for cancer, and 9 were classified as Child-Pugh B. Finally, 412 patients were eligible to participate in the study: 113 could not be contacted for the second screening; 4 demonstrated some intellectual deficit and were therefore unable to understand the purpose of the study; and 27 refused to participate.