These results indicate that circadian transcription of Npas2 is s

These results indicate that circadian transcription of Npas2 is synchronized with that

of Bmal1 in a cell-autonomous nuclear receptor-mediated selleck chemicals llc fashion.”
“BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) is a surgery designed to achieve complete resection of a malignant spinal tumor, such as spinal metastasis. Although this procedure decreases the rate of local recurrence, it is questionable whether local control prolongs a patient’s survival. In cryosurgery, antitumor immunity is activated after percutaneous cryoablation of tumors. We applied this tumor-induced cryoimmunology to TES surgery and developed a “second-generation TES” that brings about TES enhancing antitumor immunity to prolong a patient’s survival. PURPOSE: To present a second-generation TES applied tumor-induced cryoimmunology and assess the immunity-enhancing effect after implementing this surgery. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data. PATIENT SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 65 consecutive patients who underwent second-generation TES. OUTCOME MEASURES: Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) before surgery and at both 1 and 3 months after surgery was used to assess the immunity-enhancing effect. METHODS: In second-generation TES, instead of harvesting autograft from the

ilium or fibula, the resected lamina and vertebral body from TES are frozen using liquid nitrogen and used as grafted bone for spinal reconstruction. In the most recent 33 of the 65 cases, in addition Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor to the TES procedure, a small amount of the tumor tissue from the resected tumor-bearing vertebra was also placed into liquid nitrogen. This small amount of tumor tissue was then implanted subcutaneously on one side of the axilla at the end of the TES surgery. In 60 of 65 cases, measurement of IFN-gamma and IL-12 was performed. RESULTS: IFN-gamma increased after surgery in 45

(75%) of 60 cases. The mean IFN-gamma relative concentrations at both 1 and 3 months after surgery, as compared phosphatase inhibitor library with before surgery, were significantly higher (284%+/- 596% and 275%+/- 354%: p smaller than .05). IL-12 increased after surgery in 44 (73.3%) of 60 cases. The mean IL-12 relative concentrations at both 1 and 3 months after surgery, as compared with before surgery, were significantly higher (277% +/- 385% and 486%+/- 1032%: p bigger than .05 and p smaller than .01) at 3 months. At final follow-up, 13 of the 65 patients died due to progression of metastases (mean 12.6 months after TES), 15 remained free from disease, and 36 patients were alive with disease. CONCLUSIONS: The second-generation TES using frozen tumor-bearing autograft inside a cage affords three benefits: (1) no pain at the bone harvest site, (2) shortening of operation time, and (3) decrease of blood loss. Moreover, our results show that second-generation TES provides not only a local radical cure but also a systemic immunological enhancement. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Discussion: Our study based on gene-expression profiling sugg

\n\nDiscussion: Our study based on gene-expression profiling suggested that DIO rats in general represent an appropriate obesity Captisol model. However, the discrepancies

in gene-expression alterations between DIO rats and obese humans, particularly in the metabolic pathways, may explain the limitations of using DIO rodent models in obesity research and drug discovery.”
“Background: The expression of some genes controlling energy homeostasis could be regulated by epigenetic mechanisms that may play a role in body weight regulation. Thus, it is known that various nutritional factors affect DNA methylation. In order to assess whether the macronutrient composition of the diet could be related to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and with obesity development, we investigated the effects on methylation and expression patterns of two pair-fed

PF-02341066 inhibitor isocaloric diets in rats: control (rich in starch) and HFS (rich in fat and sucrose).\n\nResults: The pair-fed HFS diet induced higher weight gain and adiposity as compared to the controls as well as liver triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress. Feeding the HFS diet impaired glucose tolerance and serum triglycerides and cholesterol. Liver glucokinase expression, a key glycolytic gene, remained unaltered, as well as the mRNA values of fatty acid synthase and NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 6 (NDUFB6) in liver and visceral adipocytes, which regulate lipogenesis and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, respectively. Liver expression of hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HADHB), a key gene of beta-oxidation pathway, was higher

in the HFS-fed animals. However, the methylation Selleck BIIB057 status of CpG islands in HADHB and glucokinase genes remained unchanged after feeding the HFS diet.\n\nConclusions: These results confirm that the distribution and type of macronutrients (starch vs. sucrose, and percent of fat) influence obesity onset and the associated metabolic complications. HFS diets produce obesity independently of total energy intake, although apparently no epigenetic (DNA methylation) changes accompanied the modifications observed in gene expression.”
“The variation of moisture during sewage sludge bio-drying was investigated. In situ measurements were conducted to monitor the bulk moisture and water vapor, while the moisture content, water generation, water evaporation and aeration water input of the bio-drying bulk were calculated based on the water mass balance. The moisture in the sewage sludge bio-drying material decreased from 66% to 54% in response to control technology for bio-drying. During the temperature increasing and thermophilic phases of sewage sludge bio-drying, the moisture content, water generation and water evaporation of the bulk initially increased and then decreased. The peak water generation and evaporation occurred during the thermophilic phase.

Accordingly, angiogenesis of lesion has become all attractive tar

Accordingly, angiogenesis of lesion has become all attractive target for novel medical therapeutics and strategies to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor action. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene regulation in endometrial and endometriosis cells by factor receptors, other transcription factors, and also by infiltrating immune cells is emphasized. New data showing that oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress increase vascular endothelial growth factor expression are provided. Finally, we review the clinical implications of angiogenesis in this condition and propose potential antiangiogenic therapies that may become useful in the control or eradication

of endometriotic lesions.”
“The light induced electron transfer in photosynthesis generates a series of sequential spin polarized radical pairs, and transient electron paramagnetic resonance (TREPR) is ideally suited to study the lifetimes and physical and electronic structures of these radical pairs. In this article, the basic principles of TREPR are outlined with emphasis on the electron spin polarization (ESP) that develops

during the electron transfer process. Examples of the analysis of TREPR data are given to illustrate the information that can be obtained. Recent applications of the technique to study the functionality of reaction centers, light-induced structural changes, and protein-cofactor interactions are reviewed.”
“The study of the adoption of information technology (IT) by individuals has taken two approaches,

one emphasizing rationalistic goal-oriented behavior and the Sapanisertib other focusing on poignant forces that influence an individual’s reaction to a new IT. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive. Individuals’ acceptance and subsequent usage of a new IT is predicated on both. Additionally, the tendency in past studies has been to examine either the rational or the poignant factors in the context of a “resource-rich” environment-one in which there is an abundance of IT, adequate infrastructure, and a high level of acculturation VX-680 to technology solutions. Consequently, there is a clear need for the examination of these factors in resource-poor environments, where assumptions on technology abundance and technology culturation do not hold. We empirically test a model that explains the intention of physicians in a resource-poor environment (epitomized by rural Ethiopia) to adopt telemedicine systems. This model integrates the rational factors driving goal-oriented behavior with the poignant/emotive factors that are an innate part of each adopter’s reaction to the new technology. We use the model to expose salient contextual factors that explain the acceptance behavior of individuals toward complex information and communications technology (ICT) solutions and implications of these on the management of technology transfer initiatives in a resource-poor environment.

These results demonstrate that overexpression of HGF leads to an

These results demonstrate that overexpression of HGF leads to an enhancement of both short- and long-term memory. Western blot analyses revealed that the levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B, but not NR1, were increased in the hippocampus of HGF-Tg mice compared with WT controls, suggesting that an upregulation of NR2A and NR2B could represent one mechanism by which HGF enhances learning and memory performance.

These results demonstrate that modulation of learning and memory performance is an important physiological function of HGF that contributes to normal CNS plasticity, and we propose HGF as a novel regulator of higher brain functions. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Purpose To evaluate Ferroptosis inhibitor the validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research.\n\nMethods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative and claims data from 11 U. S. health plans and corresponding birth

certificate data from state health departments. Diagnoses, drug dispensings, and procedure codes were used to identify infant outcomes (cardiac defects, anencephaly, preterm birth, and neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] admission) and maternal diagnoses (asthma and systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE]) recorded in the health plan data for live born deliveries between January 2001 and December 2007. A random sample of medical charts (n = 802) was abstracted for infants and mothers identified with the specified outcomes. Information on newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics (gestational age at birth, birth weight, previous pregnancies and live births, race/ethnicity) was also abstracted and compared to birth certificate data. Positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated with documentation in the medical chart serving as the gold standard.\n\nResults

PPVs were 71% for cardiac defects, 37% for anencephaly, 87% for preterm birth, and 92% for NICU admission. PPVs for algorithms to identify maternal diagnoses of asthma and SLE were >= 93%. Our findings indicated SC79 manufacturer considerable agreement (PPVs > 90%) between birth certificate and medical record data for measures related to birth weight, gestational age, prior obstetrical history, and race/ethnicity.\n\nConclusions Health plan and birth certificate data can be useful to accurately identify some infant outcomes, maternal diagnoses, and newborn, maternal, and paternal characteristics. Other outcomes and variables may require medical record review for validation. Copyright (C) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Eight animals underwent fusion podoplasties for the treatment of chronic interdigital furunculosis (n=3), ectrodactyly (n=1), digit abnormalities associated with tendonectomy (n=1), redundant indertigital skin (n=1), conformational deformity (n=1), and necrotizing fasciitis of the paw (n=1). Median duration of bandaging was 14 days, and median duration of hospitalization was 5 days.

Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT

Margins wider than the internal target volume as defined by 4DCT were required to encompass nearly all the motion detected by cine-MRI for some of the patients in this study. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) on the absorption process

was investigated by drug-drug interaction studies of TAK-427 with P-gp inhibitors (erythromycin, ketoconazole or quinidine) in rats and by transport studies using rat multidrug resistance (MDR1) stably expressing Small molecule library cells and rat small intestine mounted in a Ussing-type chamber. TAK-427 showed high efflux activity with low permeability in rat MDR1a and MDR1b stably expressing cells and was revealed to be a typical substrate for P-gps. Although TAK-427 was mainly absorbed from the small intestine in rats, a large part of the dosed compound remained in the gastrointestinal tract. buy Cyclopamine Orally co-administered P-gp inhibitors (50 mg/kg) increased the AUC of TAK-427 after a 5 mg/kg oral dose 5.4- to

18.3-fold, whereas orally administered P-gp inhibitors had a minor effect on the increase in the AUC of TAK-427 (1.3- to 2.2-fold) after a 0.5 mg/kg intravenous dose. Thus, the bioavailability of TAK-427 after oral administration in rats (7.3%) markedly increased when co-administered with P-gp inhibitors (28.6-57.6%). Moreover, the transport of TAK-427 was predominantly secretory throughout the rat small intestine and was inhibited this website by P-gp inhibitors. In conclusion, P-gp can markedly reduce the absorption of a typical P-gp substrate by its efflux activity throughout the absorption site. Copyright (C) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily includes death receptor (DR) ligands, such as TNF-alpha, FasL, and TRAIL Death receptors (DRs) induce intracellular signaling upon engagement of their cognate DR ligands, either leading to apoptosis, survival, or proinflammatory responses.

The DR signaling is mediated by the recruitment of several death domain (DD)-containing molecules such as Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and receptor-interacting protein (RIP) 1. In this review, we describe DR signaling in mammals, and describe recent findings of DR signaling during metamorphosis in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis. Specifically, we focus on the cell fate (apoptosis or survival) mediated through a DR ligand, TNF-alpha or TRAIL in endothelial cells or red blood cells (RBCs). In addition, we discuss relationships between thyroid hormone-induced metamorphosis and DR signaling. (c) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Study Type Therapy (case control) Level of Evidence 3b What’s known on the subject? and What does the study add? Abnormal pelvic floor muscle function has been associated with chronic pelvic pain syndromes. This study adds evidence about pelvic muscle performance in women with dry overactive bladders.

Drug-induced changes can be functional and/or associated with mor

Drug-induced changes can be functional and/or associated with morphological alterations in the normal heart histology. It is therefore crucial to understand Adriamycin inhibitor the normal variations in histology to discriminate test article-related changes from background lesions. Rodent progressive cardiomyopathy is probably the most commonly encountered change in control animals of nonclinical toxicity studies. A multisite study mimicking standard short-term toxicity studies using young male Sprague-Dawley

rats was performed to better characterize this finding. Using an enhanced sectioning method for this research study, it was observed that the incidence of background cardiomyopathy was 100%. The vast majority of the microscopic findings were inflammatory in nature, AZD1208 research buy with associated necrotic changes (defined as necrosis/inflammatory cell infiltrate) and these changes were mainly located in the myocardium of the mid region of the ventricles (the left side being predominantly affected). The monitored environmental factors in this study (multiple facilities, study duration, handling) did not have an effect on the

incidence or severity of the spontaneous cardiomyopathy. In addition, cardiac-specific serum troponin levels were measured and were within the published control range.”
“BACKGROUND: Experimental and clinical observations show that proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are involved in the development of local and particularly systemic complications in acute pancreatitis (AP) patients. There are often pulmonary complications in such patients. The mechanisms through which lung injury is induced in AP are not fully clear.\n\nMETHODS: In order to assess the role of activated neutrophils, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules at the onset and development of respiratory complications and respiratory

failure, we measured the serum levels of pro-inflammatory (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNF-alpha) and Fludarabine anti-inflammatory (IL-Ira, IL-10) cytokines in 51 AP patients who had been diagnosed with pancreatitis-associated lung injury with and without the development of organ dysfunction.\n\nRESULTS: When admitted to the hospital, severe AP patients had increased concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-alpha. The concentration of IL-18 alone was considerably increased in the patients who later developed respiratory failure. The onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome in the AP patients was accompanied by an increase in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines’ especially IL-10. It was noted that in severe lung injury, myeloperoxidase activity in the blood increased significantly, but still reflected the processes taking place in the lung parenchyma.

“To investigate the effect of differences in anthocyanin c

“To investigate the effect of differences in anthocyanin composition on radical-scavenging activity in the purple-fleshed sweetpotato storage root, 124 sweetpotato clones with various compositions of anthocyanin were produced by crosses among superior sweetpotato genetic resources, and were analyzed for anthocyanin composition and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity (RSA). The highest content of anthocyanin among the clones was twofold higher than the content of cv.

Ayamurasaki, which has been released for use in industrial pigment production in Japan. Compound C cell line The range of variance in anthocyanin composition was very wide, as the ratio of peak areas of cyanidin-based anthocyanins to total anthocyanin peak areas ranged from 85.7% to 6.0%. The relationship between anthocyanin content and RSA was positively correlated. Correlation coefficients between RSA and the HPLC peak areas of cyanidin-based anthocyanins ranged from 0.606 to 0.687, whereas those of peonidin-based anthocyanins were 0.124-0.271. These results clearly demonstrated that cyanidin-based anthocyanins are closely related to DPPH RSA in sweetpotato storage roots. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: For residents of long term care, hospitalisations can cause distress and disruption, and often result

in further medical complications. GW4869 Multi-disciplinary team interventions have been shown to improve the health of Residential Aged Care (RAC) residents, decreasing the need for

acute hospitalisation, yet there are few randomised controlled trials of these LDK378 complex interventions. This paper describes a randomised controlled trial of a structured multi-disciplinary team and gerontology nurse specialist (GNS) intervention aiming to reduce residents’ avoidable hospitalisations.\n\nMethods/Design: This Aged Residential Care Healthcare Utilisation Study (ARCHUS) is a cluster-randomised controlled trial (n = 1700 residents) of a complex multi-disciplinary team intervention in long-term care facilities. Eligible facilities certified for residential care were selected from those identified as at moderate or higher risk of resident potentially avoidable hospitalisations by statistical modelling. The facilities were all located in the Auckland region, New Zealand and were stratified by District Health Board (DHB).\n\nIntervention: The intervention provided a structured GNS intervention including a baseline facility needs assessment, quality indicator benchmarking, a staff education programme and care coordination. Alongside this, three multi-disciplinary team (MDT) meetings were held involving a geriatrician, facility GP, pharmacist, GNS and senior nursing staff.\n\nOutcomes: Hospitalisations are recorded from routinely-collected acute admissions during the 9-month intervention period followed by a 5-month follow-up period.

The positive likelihood ratio was 24 7 (95% CI, 6 1-100) and the

The positive likelihood ratio was 24.7 (95% CI, 6.1-100) and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.8).\n\nConclusions: Specificity of the CAM-ICU as performed buy Entinostat in routine practice seems to be high but sensitivity is low. This hampers early detection of delirium by the CAM-ICU.”
“Two neuronal populations of the lateral hypothalamus that, respectively, produce melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin peptides are crucially involved in control of metabolism, feeding and related goal-oriented

behaviors. In contrast to orexin neurons, mainly involved in short-term regulation of feeding, MCH neurons participate in long-term control of energy storage and body weight. Beyond its effect on feeding, MCH Emricasan manufacturer has also been shown to be involved in regulation

of seeking behavior and addiction through modulation of dopamine (DA) metabolism. This regulation is essential for reinforcement-associated behaviors. Moreover, drugs of abuse, which increase extracellular DA levels, are known to decrease food intake. Consistent with this observation, DA has been shown to modulate orexin neurons of the lateral hypothalamus. However, no study is available concerning the effects of DA on MCH neurons. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were done in hypothalamic mouse brain slices. MCH neurons were identified by Tau-Cyan-GFP labeling using a transgenic mouse model (MCH-GFP). First, we show that DA (10-200 mu M) induces an outward current in MCH neurons. However, this current is not due to activation of DA receptors, but mediated through activation of alpha 2-noradrenergic receptors and subsequent opening of G-protein activated inward rectifier K+ (GIRK) channels. Current-clamp experiments revealed that

this GIRK-activation leads to hyperpolarization, thus decreasing excitability of MCH neurons. Furthermore, we confirm that MCH neurons receive mainly GABAergic inputs rather than glutamatergic ones. We show that DA modulates these inputs in a complex manner: at low concentrations, Selleckchem GDC941 DA activates D1-like receptors, promoting presynaptic activity, whereas, at higher concentrations (100 mu M), D2-like receptor activation inhibits presynaptic activity. Overall, DA should lead to a decrease in MCH neuron excitability, likely resulting in down-regulation of MCH release and feeding behavior. (c) 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: To improve health in the population, public health interventions must be successfully implemented within organisations, requiring behaviour change in health service providers as well as in the target population group. Such behavioural change is seldom easily achieved.

Our novel likelihood method, which was robust to realistic simula

Our novel likelihood method, which was robust to realistic simulation parameters, was tested on Drosophila nuclear pore proteins, which form a complex with well-documented physical interactions. The method revealed significantly correlated evolution learn more between nuclear pore proteins, where members of a stable subcomplex showed stronger correlations compared with those proteins that interact transiently. Furthermore, our likelihood approach was better able to detect correlated evolution among closely related species than previous methods. Hence, these sequence-based methods are a complementary approach for detecting correlated evolution and could be applied genome-wide

to provide candidate protein-protein GSI-IX supplier interactions and functional group assignments using just coding sequences.”
“Current spindle models explain “anaphase A” (movement of chromosomes to the poles) in terms of a motility system based solely on microtubules (MTs) and that functions in a manner unique to mitosis. We find both these propositions unlikely.

An evolutionary perspective suggests that when the spindle evolved, it should have come to share not only components (e.g., microtubules) of the interphase cell but also the primitive motility systems available, including those using actin and myosin. Other systems also came to be involved in the additional types of motility that now accompany mitosis in extant spindles. The resultant functional redundancy built reliability into this critical and complex process. Such multiple mechanisms are also confusing to those who seek to understand how chromosomes move. Narrowing this commentary down to just anaphase A, we argue that the spindle matrix participates with MTs in anaphase A and that this matrix may

contain actin and myosin. The diatom spindle illustrates how such a system could function. This matrix may be motile and work in association with the MT cytoskeleton, as it does with the actin cytoskeleton during cell ruffling and amoeboid movement. Instead of pulling the chromosome polewards, the kinetochore fibre’s role might be to slow polewards movement to buy GW4869 allow correct chromosome attachment to the spindle. Perhaps the earliest eukaryotic cell was a cytoplast organised around a radial MT cytoskeleton. For cell division, it separated into two cytoplasts via a spindle of overlapping MTs. Cytokinesis was actin-based cleavage. As chromosomes evolved into individual entities, their interaction with the dividing cytoplast developed into attachment of the kinetochore to radial (cytoplast) MTs. We believe it most likely that cytoplasmic motility systems participated in these events.”
“Photodissociation of (ICN)(2) dimer from 265 to 270 nm are studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry combined with velocity imaging technique.

53Ga0 47As base, and a 75-nm-thick In0 53Ga0 47As collector The

53Ga0.47As base, and a 75-nm-thick In0.53Ga0.47As collector. The emitter enables fabrication of a 15-nm-thick ledge structure simply by wet etching the n(+)-InGaAs

emitter. The emitter mesa and base metal were scaled down to 0.25 and 0.3 mu m, respectively. The fabricated HBT with a 0.25-mu m emitter provides a current gain of 62 at a collector current density, J(c), of 10 mA/mu m(2). With the thin ledge structure, the current gain is virtually independent of emitter size and emitter-base spacing. The HBT also exhibits an f(t) of 442 GHz and an f(max) of 214 GHz at a J(c) of 12 mA/mu m(2). The results of bias-temperature stress tests show that base and collector currents are stable up to 1042 h at a J(c) of 5 mA/mu m(2). (C) 2010 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“We Stem Cell Compound Library manufacturer have succeeded in synthesizing organic biradical crystals of m-Ph-V-2 [= 1,3-bis-(1,5-diphenylverdazyl-3-yl)benzene]. The intra and intermolecular interactions, which are deduced

from the molecular packing in the crystal, are considered to form an alternating double chain. We evaluated the intramolecular ferromagnetic ( FM) interaction from an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of isolated m-Ph-V-2 molecules. We analyzed the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization curves of the crystals by the quantum Monte Carlo method and successfully explained these CX-6258 solubility dmso properties using an S = 1/2 FM alternating double chain model, which consists of antiferromagnetically coupled FM alternating chains. In addition, the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat showed anomalous behavior at T-N = 1.9 K, which indicates the magnetic phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state.”
“Increasing life expectancy and PSA testing has increased the number of men over the age of seventy-five presenting for investigation of potential prostate malignancies. Prostatic biopsies provide diagnostic information; however, they are invasive and may not alter

management decisions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether prostate biopsies in this age group were justified. All men aged 75 years and older who underwent prostatic biopsies between January 2010 and November 2011 at Bedford Hospital were identified Cell Cycle inhibitor and the indication for the biopsies, histopathological results and subsequent management plan investigated. One hundred and thirty-eight (138) prostatic biopsies were undertaken and malignancies identified in 60/138 (43 %) cases. Prebiopsy PSA and examination findings had a poor positive predictive value of 54 %. Fifty-five out of sixty (92 %) cancers were classified as high or medium risk disease with 30/60 (50 %) patients commencing radiotherapy treatment with curative intent. In selected patients aged 75 years or over, prostatic biopsies provide important diagnostic information which directly impacts on clinical decisions, supporting their use in this age group.