2%, 0 4%, or 0 5% colchicine (w/v)

plus 0 5% dimethyl sul

2%, 0.4%, or 0.5% colchicine (w/v)

plus 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide. In studies 2 and 3, apical meristems of seedlings Ricolinostat at the cotyledon stage were treated for 1 or 3 days with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mu M oryzalin solidified with 0.8% agar. Visual observations and measurement of guard cells were used to identify plants that potentially had their chromosome number doubled. Flow cytometry of nuclei stained with DAPI was used for confirmation of polyploidy. No induced polyploidy was observed following seed treatment with colchicine at the rates and duration used in this study. One-time application of 50 mu M oryzalin resulted in a single mixoploid (4x + 8x) in which the ploidy of the L-I, L-II, and L-III histogenic layers were identified as a 4-4-4 + 8, respectively. Three-day applications with 100 and 150 mu M oryzalin resulted in an octoploid HM781-36B cell line (8x) and a mixoploid (4x + 8x), respectively. The mixoploid from the 3-day treatment stabilized at the 8x level before flowering, but was identified as a 4 + 8-x-4 cytochimera. Plant height was reduced, leaves were

smaller, internodes were shorter, and canopy volume was reduced in the octoploid (8x) form compared with the tetraploid (4x) form. Furthermore, in contrast to the tetraploid, the octoploid produced no self-pollinated seed and performed poorly as a staminate and pistillate parent in controlled crosses. This represents the first time oryzalin has been reported to induce polyploidy in Hibiscus L. section Furcaria DC. H. acetosella is an allotetraploid species with the genome composition AABB. The resulting autoallooctoploid (AAAABBBB) form of ‘Panama Red’ exhibits a more compact habit and reduced production of seed.”
“In Galois’ last GW4869 clinical trial letter he found the values of the primes p for which the group PSL(2, p) acts transitively on less than p + 1 points. (It always acts transitively on the p+1 points of the projective line.) He found that these values of p are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11. The cases p = 7, p = 11 have much geometric interest. PSL(2, 7) is the automorphism group of the simplest projective

plane, the Fano plane on seven points. The simplest biplane is on eleven points, and PSL(2, 11) is its automorphism group. The Fano plane can be embedded in Klein’s Riemann surface of genus 3. We find an interesting surface of genus 70, in which we can embed the biplane on eleven points. This surface also contains truncated icosahedra or buckyballs and so is called the buckyball curve. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A cross-sectional study was conducted of 159 long-term care staff who completed a series of questionnaires on knowledge of dementia and knowledge of depression, a series of forced-choice questions on the differentiation between dementia and depression, and a demographics questionnaire. Relative to professional staff, paraprofessional staff had lower scores in depression knowledge and differentiation knowledge. All staff had accurate knowledge of dementia.

Results: 40% (10/25) of the patients presented a classical pa

\n\nResults: 40% (10/25) of the patients presented a classical pattern of evolution of involved segments DMXAA by GI-GVHD. In these cases, especially the

small bowel was initially involved showing a retreat with time towards the terminal ileum with longer length of stay in this location. 28% (7/25) of the patients presented with a nonclassical permanently migratory involvement of the GI jumping from one GI segment to another. Other 32% (8/25) of our patients revealed a nonclassical persistent, unchanged involvement pattern of GI involvement by GVHD at time.\n\nConclusion: Contrary to existing reports, our data collected in 25 patients diagnosed with GI-GVHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation suggest the presence of three different courses (classical, nonclassical migratory and nonclassical persistent) of this disorder. Awareness of this knowledge enables more accurate risk stratification. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Vocal symptoms

and acoustic measures of patients with multiple sclerosis selleck chemicals (MS) are investigated in relation to the duration of the disease, stage of the disease and the degree of disability. Eighty-two patients were enrolled in this study (40 MS, 42 controls). In the MS group, the most common vocal symptoms were vocal breaks and vocal fatigue present in 10. None of the patients in the control group had voice breaks. In the male group, there was a significant decrease in the fundamental frequency, habitual pitch and maximum phonation time with a significant increase in Shimmer. In the female group, there was a significant decrease in the maximum phonation time only. There was no correlation between vocal symptoms and acoustic measures versus duration of the disease and extent of disability except for vocal fatigue which significantly associated with EDSS (expanded disability status scale) score. Dinaciclib order Patients with MS may develop vocal symptoms irrespective of the EDSS score, duration and stage of the disease. Vocal fatigue and vocal breaks are more common than hoarseness.”
“Background.

Previous studies of maternal, fetal, and neonatal complications of measles during pregnancy suggest the possibility of increased risk for morbidity and mortality. In 2009-2011, a nationwide laboratory-confirmed measles outbreak occurred in Namibia, with 38% of reported cases among adults. This outbreak provided an opportunity to describe clinical features of measles in pregnant women and assess the relative risk for adverse maternal, fetal, and neonatal outcomes. Methods. A cohort of pregnant women with clinical measles was identified retrospectively from 6 district hospitals and clinics over a 12-month period. Each pregnant woman with measles was matched with 3 pregnant women without measles, randomly selected from antenatal clinic registers at the same hospital during the same time interval.


“In this review, we initially covered the basic

an


“In this review, we initially covered the basic

and clinical reports that provided the prevalent concepts underlying the mechanisms for atrial fibrillation (AF). The clinical evolution of catheter ablation and its eventual application to AF has also been detailed. A critique of the results based on a review of the literature has shown that either or both drugs or catheter ablation therapy for preventing AF recurrences have significant limitations and even serious complications. Finally, we have presented recent experimental studies which suggest that an alternative approach to reducing AF inducibility can be achieved with low-level autonomic nerve stimulation. Specifically, electrical stimulation of the vago-sympathetic

trunks, at levels well below that which SBE-β-CD Microbiology inhibitor slows the heart rate can significantly increase AF thresholds and suppress AF inducibility. Further studies selleckchem will determine if this new method can be used as an effective means of treating some forms of clinical AF.”
“In 2001, funding from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation (WICKF) provided the resources necessary for the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) to lend its support to the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Pipeline, Profession, and Practice: Community-Based Dental Education program. Through the $1.1 million WKKF grant, ADEA was able to provide grants to eleven of the Pipeline schools. The awards were known as the ADEA/WKKF Access to Dental Careers grants. Each school received $100,000 during the four-year grant Go 6983 period. The grant funds were used for direct educational support only to underrepresented minority and low-income students. ADEA provided administrative support for distribution of funds to the schools and for reporting to the foundation. The grants provided educational support funding to underrepresented minority and low-income students as an added value to the recruitment component of the Pipeline

program. A total of 226 awards were made during the four-year grant period. The average grant award was $4,867.25.”
“Pratylenchus thornei is widespread throughout the wheat-growing regions in Australia and overseas and can cause yield losses of up to 70% in some intolerant cultivars. The most effective forms of management of P. thornei populations are crop rotation and plant breeding. There have been no wheat accessions identified as completely resistant to P. thornei, therefore breeding programs have used moderately resistant parents. The objective of the present research was to evaluate 274 Iranian landrace wheats for resistance to P. thornei and identify accessions with resistance superior to the current best resistance source (GS50a). Plants were grown in P. thornei inoculated soil under controlled conditions in a glasshouse pot experiment for 16 weeks.

001) For total

protein methods, 23 peer group mean value

001). For total

protein methods, 23 peer group mean values were -0.07 to 0.15 g/dL from the reference measurement procedure (12 of 24 [50%] had P smaller than .001). The Beckman (Fullerton, California) Synchron LX20 had a bias of -0.30 g/dL (P smaller than .001). The commutability of the conventional specimens was acceptable for 23 of 24 bromocresol green method-material combinations (96%) and 13 of 16 bromocresol purple albumin method-material combinations (81%). All (100%) of the 36 method-material combinations had acceptable commutability PX-478 for total protein. Conclusions.-One (2.2%) of the instrument systems (Synchron) using bromocresol green and none (0%) of the instrument systems using bromocresol purple had satisfactory total-error performance for albumin measurement. Differences in results between bromocresol green and bromocresol purple methods precluded using common

reference intervals for interpreting PI3K inhibitor results for serum albumin. Eight of 9 instrument systems (86.5%) had satisfactory total-error performance for total protein measurement.”
“We have recently reported inactivation of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2 (also known as TC-PTP) through deletion of the entire gene locus in similar to 6% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases. T-ALL is an aggressive disease of the thymocytes characterized by the step-wise accumulation of chromosomal abnormalities and gene mutations. In the present study, we confirmed the strong association of the PTPN2 deletion with TLX1 and NUP214-ABL1 expression. In addition, learn more we found cooperation between PTPN2 deletion and activating JAK1 gene mutations. Activating mutations in

JAK1 kinase occur in similar to 10% of human T-ALL cases, and aberrant kinase activity has been shown to confer proliferation and survival advantages. Our results reveal that some JAK1 mutation-positive T-ALLs harbor deletions of the tyrosine phosphatase PTPN2, a known negative regulator of the JAK/STAT pathway. We provide evidence that down-regulation of Ptpn2 sensitizes lymphoid cells to JAK1-mediated transformation and reduces their sensitivity to JAK inhibition. (Blood. 2011;11(26):7090-7098)”
“The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in several types of cancer and its inhibition can effectively inhibit tumour progression. The purpose of this study was to design an EGFR-specific imaging probe that combines efficient tumour targeting with rapid systemic clearance to facilitate non-invasive assessment of EGFR expression.\n\nGenetic fusion of a single-chain antibody fragment with the SNAP-tag produced a 48-kDa antibody derivative that can be covalently and site-specifically labelled with substrates containing 0 (6)-benzylguanine.

The cytotoxicity was evaluated on VERO cells by the MTT test The

The cytotoxicity was evaluated on VERO cells by the MTT test. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by the Kirby Bauer paper method, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration. H. influenzae, parainfluenzae, and S. maltophilia were the most susceptible, followed by S. pneumoniae. The antiviral activity, assessed by means of virus yield experiments titered by the end-point dilution method for adenovirus, and by plaque reduction assay

SIS3 solubility dmso for mumps virus, disclosed only a mild activity on mumps virus.”
“Methicillin (meticillin)-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) strains producing large amounts of type A beta-lactamase (Bla) have been associated with cefazolin failures, but the frequency and impact of these strains have not

been well studied. Here we examined 98 MSSA clinical isolates and found that 26% produced type A Bla, 15% type B, 46% type C, and none type D and that 13% lacked blaZ. The cefazolin MIC(90) was 2 mu g/ml for a standard inoculum and 32 mu g/ml for a high inoculum, with 19% of isolates displaying a pronounced inoculum effect (MICs of >= 16 mu g/ml AZD1390 with 10(7) CFU/ml) ( 9 type A and 10 type C Bla producers). At the high inoculum, type A producers displayed higher cefazolin MICs than type B or C producers, while type B and C producers displayed higher cefamandole MICs. Among isolates from hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia, three from the six patients who experienced cefazolin failure showed a cefazolin inoculum effect, while none from the six patients successfully treated with cefazolin showed an inoculum effect, suggesting an association between these strains and cefazolin failure ( P = 0.09 by Fisher’s exact test). In summary, 19% of MSSA clinical isolates showed a pronounced inoculum effect with cefazolin, a phenomenon that could explain the cases of cefazolin failure previously reported for hemodialysis patients with MSSA bacteremia.

These results suggest that for serious MSSA infections, the presence of a significant inoculum effect with cefazolin could be associated with clinical click here failure in patients treated with this cephalosporin, particularly when it is used at low doses.”
“Studies indicated that many tissues could express FSH. New functions of FSH have been recognized beyond reproduction regulation. However, no report has been made about the expression and function of FSH in rat spinal cord. Double-labeled immunofluorescence stain and in situ hybridization were used to study the co-localization of FSH with its receptor and co-localization of FSH with GnRH receptor in rat spinal cord. Spinal cord ischemia injury models were built, TUNEL stain and Fas immunostaining were made to observe the anti-apoptotic effects of FSH to neurons induced by spinal cord ischemia injury.

72) < TSF (3 15) < STF (3 50) (P < 0 05), which was not

72) < TSF (3.15) < STF (3.50) (P < 0.05), which was not correlated with annual precipitation or annual mean temperature, but was rather related to litter quality. The nutrient use efficiency was found to be element-dependent and to vary significantly among the three forest types (P < 0.05). These results indicate that litterfall production and decomposition rates in different tropical forest systems are related to plant species composition and are influenced strongly by coexisting species and their life stage (age) but less so by the species richness. Constructing multi-species and multistory man-made tropical forest is an effective

way to enhance biological productivity and maintain soil nutrients on degraded tropical land.”
“In Bafilomycin A1 research buy longitudinal studies, a quantitative outcome (such as blood pressure) may be altered during follow-up ICG-001 by the administration of a non-randomized, non-trial intervention (such as anti-hypertensive medication) that may seriously bias the study results. Current methods mainly address this issue for cross-sectional studies. For longitudinal data, the current methods are either restricted to a specific longitudinal data structure or are valid only under special circumstances. We propose two new methods for estimation of covariate effects on the underlying (untreated) general longitudinal outcomes: a single imputation method employing a modified expectation-maximization

(EM)-type algorithm and a multiple imputation (MI) method utilizing a modified Monte Carlo EM-MI algorithm. Each method can be implemented as one-step, two-step, and ACY-241 in vitro full-iteration algorithms. They combine the advantages of the current statistical methods while reducing their restrictive assumptions and generalizing them to realistic scenarios. The proposed methods replace intractable numerical integration of a multi-dimensionally censored MVN posterior distribution with a simplified, sufficiently accurate approximation. It is particularly attractive when outcomes reach a plateau after intervention due to various reasons.

Methods are studied via simulation and applied to data from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications study of treatment for type 1 diabetes. Methods proved to be robust to high dimensions, large amounts of censored data, low within-subject correlation, and when subjects receive non-trial intervention to treat the underlying condition only (with high Y), or for treatment in the majority of subjects (with high Y) in combination with prevention for a small fraction of subjects (with normal Y). Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“Muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, are crucial for skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. In healthy adult muscle, satellite cells are quiescent but poised for activation.

Upon exploratory laparotomy, he was found to have a retroperitone

Upon exploratory laparotomy, he was found to have a retroperitoneal hernia. The patient underwent resection of the strangulated loop of small bowel, and recovered without complications. In our patient, ureteral dissection from his prior procedure had created a defect in https://www.selleckchem.com/erk.html the peritoneum posterior to the sigmoid mesocolon, which allowed for herniation and subsequent strangulation of a portion of small bowel. Retroperitoneal hernias may represent an under-diagnosed etiology of intestinal obstruction in post-operative urological patients. Knowledge of anatomy

is crucial in patients with previous abdominal operations, and prior operative notes should be reviewed, including non general surgical operations such as urological and gynecological procedures. The surgeon must remain vigilant in such cases of small bowel obstruction, as delayed intervention may lead to bowel compromise.”
“Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for late effects which may be managed pharmacologically. The purposes of this study were to estimate and compare the prevalence of psychoactive medication use of adult survivors of childhood cancer and sibling controls, identify predictors of medication use in survivors, and investigate associations between psychoactive medications and health-related quality of life (HRQOL).\n\nPsychoactive

medication use from 1994 to 2010 was evaluated in 10,378 adult survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. A randomly selected subset of 3,206 siblings selleck compound served as a comparison group. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for baseline and new onset of self-reported psychoactive medication use and HRQOL.\n\nSurvivors were significantly more likely to report baseline (22 vs. 15 %, p < 0.001)

and new onset (31 vs. 25 %, p < 0.001) psychoactive medication use compared to siblings, as well as use of multiple medications Evofosfamide (p < 0.001). In multivariable models, controlling for pain and psychological distress, female survivors were significantly more likely to report baseline and new onset use of antidepressants (OR = 2.66, 95 % CI = 2.01-3.52; OR = 2.02, 95 % CI = 1.72-2.38, respectively) and multiple medications (OR = 1.80, 95 % CI = 1.48-2.19; OR = 1.77, 95 % CI = 1.48-2.13, respectively). Non-cranial radiation and amputation predicted incident use of analgesics > 15 years following diagnosis. Antidepressants were associated with impairment across all domains of HRQOL, with the exception of physical function.\n\nPrevalence of psychoactive medication use was higher among survivors for most medication classes, as was the use of multiple medications. Clinicians should be aware of the possible contribution of psychoactive medications to HRQOL.

The postoperative VA improved in 10 eyes (62 5%), 4 eyes (25 0%)

The postoperative VA improved in 10 eyes (62.5%), 4 eyes (25.0%) remained unchanged and 2 eyes (12.5%) decreased. Only 2 cases occurred postoperative retinal detachment in gas group. Another 16 eyes with serious retinal damage were treated with silicone oil. Postoperative VA of 9 eyes (56.3%) improved, 3 eyes (18.8%) remained unchanged and 4 eyes (25.0%) decreased. The silicone oil group had higher OSI-744 clinical trial incidence of postoperative complications, but the incidence of secondary treatment had no significant different between silicone oil and gas group.\n\nCONCLUSION: An appropriate choice of endotamponades in vitrectomy surgery for MIOFB with endophthalmitis is important for prognosis.”
“A 24-year-old

man presented with chest pain. He was diagnosed as having a type A acute aortic dissection and an annulo-aortic aneurysm. After emergency surgery for an aortic root replacement, his electrocardiogram showed ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion. Echocardiography showed asynergy of the left ventricle without coronary ostial pathology. Heart catheterization revealed no coronary stenosis, but the true lumen of the residual ascending aorta had extreme diastolic narrowing due to flap suffocation. This resulted in coronary malperfusion. The pullback pressure curve confirmed the mechanism. The patient

underwent a surgical re-intervention for a total arch repair, which diminished the coronary malperfusion. At a follow-up appointment four years and four months later, the patient was doing well.”
“The NU7441 datasheet performance of adhesively bonded joints composed

of aluminum sheet and stainless steel foils was investigated at the cryogenic temperature for the secondary barrier LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) containment system. Since the huge adhesive bonding area such as LNG carriers or floaters cannot be surface-treated economically by chemical treatment, new flame surface treatment method for the metal foils was evaluated and compared with other conventional surface treatments such as mechanical or chemical surface treatments at the cryogenic temperature. The surface wettability by contact angle measurement AZD9291 inhibitor of the metal foil was investigated with respect to surface treatments and environmental aging conditions. The effects of adhesive thickness on the adhesive bond strength and fracture toughness have been also investigated at the cryogenic temperature.\n\nThe experimental results showed that the bonding performances depended strongly on the surface treatment method, adhesive thickness and fiber reinforcement for the adhesive, such. It was also found that the thick adhesive joint had a reduced bonding strength at the cryogenic temperature, but the glass fiber reinforcement improved much the bonding strength and fracture toughness for thicker adhesive at the cryogenic temperature. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

ConclusionsThe gene expression levels in rat pulp

\n\nConclusions\n\nThe gene expression levels in rat pulp

tissue changed during fluorosis. The gene expression see more profiles between the fluorotic model and the normal group will help to understand the multiple pathogenic mechanisms for the altered mineralization patterns observed in fluorotic dentine.”
“3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) is a widespread pollutant. Some bacteria and fungi have been reported to degrade TCP, but the gene clusters responsible for TCP biodegradation have not been characterized. In this study, a fragment of the reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH(2))-dependent monooxygenase gene tcpA was amplified from the genomic DNA of Ralstonia sp. strain T6 with degenerate Nirogacestat cost primers. The tcpA disruption mutant strain T6-Delta tcpA could not degrade TCP but could degrade the green intermediate metabolite 3,6-dihydroxypyridine-2,5-dione (DHPD), which was generated during TCP biodegradation

by strain T6. The flanking sequences of tcpA were obtained by self-formed adaptor PCR. tcpRXA genes constitute a gene cluster. TcpR and TcpX are closely related to the LysR family transcriptional regulator and flavin reductase, respectively. T6-Delta tcpA-com, the complementation strain for the mutant strain T6-Delta tcpA, recovered the ability to degrade TCP, and the strain Escherichia coli DH10B-tcpRXA, which expressed the tcpRXA gene cluster, had the ability to transform TCP to DHPD, indicating that tcpA is a key gene in the initial step of TCP degradation and that TcpA dechlorinates TCP to DHPD. A library of DHPD degradation-deficient mutants of strain T6 was obtained by random transposon mutagenesis. The fragments flanking the Mariner transposon were amplified and sequenced, and the dhpRIJK gene selleck inhibitor cluster was cloned. DhpJ could transform DHPD to yield an intermediate product, 5-amino-2,4,5-trioxopentanoic acid (ATOPA), which was further degraded

by DhpI. DhpR and DhpK are closely related to the AraC family transcriptional regulator and the MFS family transporter, respectively.”
“Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Bifidobacterium lactis HY8101 on insulin resistance induced using tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells and on the KK-A(Y) mouse noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) model. Methods and Results: The treatment using HY8101 improved the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and translocation of GLUT4 via the insulin signalling pathways AKT and IRS-1(Tyr) in TNF-alpha-treated L6 cells. HY8101 increased the mRNA levels of GLUT4 and several insulin sensitivity-related genes (PPAR-c) in TNF-alpha-treated L6 cells. In KK-A(Y) mice, HY8101 decreased fasting insulin and blood glucose and significantly improved insulin tolerance.

Overall, CRD may decrease the need for provocation testing and ma

Overall, CRD may decrease the need for provocation testing and may also improve the RG-7112 molecular weight specificity of allergen-specific immunotherapy.”
“Ammonium acid urate (AAU) urolithiasis is a rare condition; however, it is endemic in some countries, with an especially high incidence in Asia. This study was conducted to investigate the special presentation of patients with MU urolithiasis in Taiwan. Reports of 3457 stones were retrospectively reviewed from January 2005 to January 2010 and 25 patients with urinary stones (0.7%) containing AAU crystals were identified. The clinical and biochemical

presentation of all stones were compared to evaluate the specific comorbidities of AAU stones. AAU stones were observed in 11 males (44%) and 14 females (56%) with a mean age of 60.60 +/- 16.81 years and mean body mass index AZD0530 cell line of 25.55 +/- 3.73 kg/m(2). AAU stones were frequently observed in the bladder (44%) and they were significantly larger (mean size 1.90 cm) than the non-AAU stones (mean size 1.22 cm). Other significant comorbidities

of AAU stones included chronic kidney disease (CKD) (60%), urinary tract infections (UTIs) (52%), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (36%), and gout (28%). In addition, there were also three patients with coexisting urothelial carcinoma (12%) in the MU-stone group. Patients with MU urolithiasis were predominantly female, older in age, had increased bladder presentation, larger stones and a high percentage of coexisting CKD, UTIs, IBS, gout, and even urothelial carcinoma. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to evaluate and protect renal function in patients with MU urolithiasis.

Copyright (C) 2012, Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.”
“Interruptions of microsatellite sequences impact genome evolution and can alter disease manifestation. However, human polymorphism levels at interrupted microsatellites (iMSs) are not known at a genome-wide scale, and the pathways for gaining interruptions are poorly understood. Using the 1000 Genomes Phase-1 variant call set, we interrogated mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats up to 10 units INCB028050 molecular weight in length. We detected similar to 26,000-40,000 iMSs within each of four human population groups (African, European, East Asian, and American). We identified population-specific iMSs within exonic regions, and discovered that known disease-associated iMSs contain alleles present at differing frequencies among the populations. By analyzing longer microsatellites in primate genomes, we demonstrate that single interruptions result in a genome-wide average two-to six-fold reduction in microsatellite mutability, as compared with perfect microsatellites. Centrally located interruptions lowered mutability dramatically, by two to three orders of magnitude. Using a biochemical approach, we tested directly whether the mutability of a specific iMS is lower because of decreased DNA polymerase strand slippage errors.