This study describes aspects of the ATR inhibitor Natural history of an abundant gall wasp and its most common parasitoids and inquilines. Methods Natural history of gall wasp The cynipid gall-inducer, A. quercuscalifornicus, induces a 5–250 cc (often apple-sized), multilocular (many wasps per gall) gall on the twigs of valley oak (Quercus lobata), a California endemic, where galls become 17DMAG molecular weight apparent on twigs with bimodal peaks of development which occur in the late spring and mid summer (Rosenthal and Koehler 1971b). It has also been collected from closely-related
oak species, Q. douglasii, Q. berberidifolia, and Q. garryana (Weld 1957). Gall abundances vary widely between individual trees, and extremely high gall densities of more than C188-9 in vivo 50 galls per cubic meter
of canopy may be supported by some trees. The range of A. quercuscalifornicus spans most of California with the extremes of southern Washington and northern Mexico (Russo 2006). Initially, the developing galls are green and moist throughout, but towards fall the external wall of the gall becomes harder, and the entire gall desiccates (“maturation date” in this study). Larvae grow and differentiate until fall, when fully developed adults emerge. Descriptions exist only for females of A. quercuscalifornicus, and the species is thought to be entirely parthenogenetic and univoltine (Schick 2002), although a cryptic, sexual generation cannot be ruled out, as cryptic cyclical parthenogenesis has been found in other cynipid species (Abe 2006; Rosenthal and Koehler 1971a). Similarly, oviposition Uroporphyrinogen III synthase has never been recorded in this species, and little is known about the exact placement of eggs on twig tissue. Andricus quercuscalifornicus has been variously divided into different subspecies by some authors (Fullaway 1911; Kinsey 1922; Russo 2006; Weld 1957), and, as yet, no molecular genetic information exists about the species. Gall abundance on twigs is correlated with shoot vigor (Rosenthal and Koehler 1971b), but other factors, such as plant genotype, likely determine inter-tree
distributions of galls (Moorehead et al. 1993). Collection of galls and rearing of insects In summer 2007 (June 1–October 10, 2007), 1234 oak apple galls were collected from valley oaks in Davis, Woodland, and Vacaville in the Central Valley of California. Valley oaks were chosen haphazardly from natural stands, riparian areas, suburban areas, and planted groves. All galls were collected from Q. lobata, and at least 20 trees were sampled per site. Galls that had changed from an early green/red to a pale brown/white color, had begun to desiccate, and lacked emergence holes were chosen for the survey. Following collection, each individual gall was placed in a closed clear plastic cup and left outdoors at ambient temperature.