2%, 0.4%, or 0.5% colchicine (w/v)
plus 0.5% dimethyl sulfoxide. In studies 2 and 3, apical meristems of seedlings Ricolinostat at the cotyledon stage were treated for 1 or 3 days with 0, 50, 100, or 150 mu M oryzalin solidified with 0.8% agar. Visual observations and measurement of guard cells were used to identify plants that potentially had their chromosome number doubled. Flow cytometry of nuclei stained with DAPI was used for confirmation of polyploidy. No induced polyploidy was observed following seed treatment with colchicine at the rates and duration used in this study. One-time application of 50 mu M oryzalin resulted in a single mixoploid (4x + 8x) in which the ploidy of the L-I, L-II, and L-III histogenic layers were identified as a 4-4-4 + 8, respectively. Three-day applications with 100 and 150 mu M oryzalin resulted in an octoploid HM781-36B cell line (8x) and a mixoploid (4x + 8x), respectively. The mixoploid from the 3-day treatment stabilized at the 8x level before flowering, but was identified as a 4 + 8-x-4 cytochimera. Plant height was reduced, leaves were
smaller, internodes were shorter, and canopy volume was reduced in the octoploid (8x) form compared with the tetraploid (4x) form. Furthermore, in contrast to the tetraploid, the octoploid produced no self-pollinated seed and performed poorly as a staminate and pistillate parent in controlled crosses. This represents the first time oryzalin has been reported to induce polyploidy in Hibiscus L. section Furcaria DC. H. acetosella is an allotetraploid species with the genome composition AABB. The resulting autoallooctoploid (AAAABBBB) form of ‘Panama Red’ exhibits a more compact habit and reduced production of seed.”
“In Galois’ last GW4869 clinical trial letter he found the values of the primes p for which the group PSL(2, p) acts transitively on less than p + 1 points. (It always acts transitively on the p+1 points of the projective line.) He found that these values of p are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11. The cases p = 7, p = 11 have much geometric interest. PSL(2, 7) is the automorphism group of the simplest projective
plane, the Fano plane on seven points. The simplest biplane is on eleven points, and PSL(2, 11) is its automorphism group. The Fano plane can be embedded in Klein’s Riemann surface of genus 3. We find an interesting surface of genus 70, in which we can embed the biplane on eleven points. This surface also contains truncated icosahedra or buckyballs and so is called the buckyball curve. (c) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A cross-sectional study was conducted of 159 long-term care staff who completed a series of questionnaires on knowledge of dementia and knowledge of depression, a series of forced-choice questions on the differentiation between dementia and depression, and a demographics questionnaire. Relative to professional staff, paraprofessional staff had lower scores in depression knowledge and differentiation knowledge. All staff had accurate knowledge of dementia.