The aim

of this study was to investigate the prevalence a

The aim

of this study was to investigate the prevalence and severity of dry mouth among elderly population of Korea and to evaluate associate factors and their impact.

Study Design. Telephone interviews were conducted on a stratified random sample of 1,012 subjects aged >= 55 years. Prevalence of dry mouth symptoms, severity of overall oral dryness, and associated factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire.

Results. Among the subjects, 70.1% reported to have at least one dry mouth-related symptom and 25.8% were classified with considerable dry mouth. Overall oral dryness severity of each of these groups was 4.30 +/- 2.67 and 6.09 +/- 2.25, respectively, on a 0-10 scale. Odds ratio of dry mouth increased in women, in smokers, and with increased age and number of medications taken. Women and number buy Ulixertinib of medications taken were significantly associated with overall oral dryness severity.

Conclusion. A major portion of the Korean elderly reported various dry mouth symptoms, and a wide range of severity and discomfort

was caused by these symptoms. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010;110:475-483)”
“The effect of homogeneous and constant external electric Ruboxistaurin order fields on the structural stability of chignolin, a typical beta-hairpin peptide, has been studied for 10ns using molecular dynamics simulations. The peptide aligns quickly its total dipole moment with the external electric field and then a constant stress is applied on its charged residues. For weaker fields this has mixed effects on the creation, destruction or strength of hydrogen bonds, but ultimately for strong fields chignolin unfolds starting NSC-23766 by the separation of the terminal residues. Since the function of proteins

is critically linked to their three-dimensional structures, these findings indicate that exposure to external electric fields may induce changes in conformation that can potentially initiate severe cellular dysfunction. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3585867]“
“Background: Patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) often have severely impaired left ventricular function and a poor prognosis. Having an ICD in situ effectively denies them the possibility of a quick, arrhythmic death. It is still unclear if and when the end of life and device deactivation should be discussed with patients and how much patients want to know prior to ICD implantation.

Methods: Patients with an active ICD for chronic heart failure were interviewed regarding their attitude toward the ICD, their recollection of the consent procedure, and how they felt the end of life should be discussed with ICD patients (n = 54). Patients who had received ICD therapies (n = 25) were reviewed as a subgroup with extended questions regarding attitudes toward device deactivation.

Results: Fifty-four patients were recruited. Most patients were not aware that the ICD could be deactivated.

This is the

first report of simultaneous posterior vault

This is the

first report of simultaneous posterior vault distraction with midfacial advancement across SB525334 mw open facial sutures using surgical navigation as an initial stage in treating syndromic craniosynostosis.”
“In the heart, Ca2+ is crucial for the regulation of contraction and intracellular signaling, processes, which are vital to the functioning of the healthy heart. Ca2+-activated signaling pathways must function against a background of large, rapid, and tightly regulated changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations during each contraction and relaxation cycle. This review highlights a number of proteins that regulate signaling Ca2+ in both normal and pathological conditions including cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, and discusses how these pathways are not regulated by the marked elevation in free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)) during contraction but require smaller sustained increases in Ca2+ concentration. In addition, we present published evidence that the pool of Ca2+

that regulates signaling is compartmentalized into distinct cellular microdomains and is thus distinct from that regulating contraction. (C) 2011 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.”
“Plantago lanceolata, also known as snake’s tongue, is a perennial herbaceous plant from the family Plantaginaceae. It is a species widely Selleck Sonidegib distributed both in Turkey and all over the world. Today, its fresh leaves are still used to soothe and suppress cough, externally for wound healing and draining abscesses. Phytophotodermatitis (PPD) is a dermal photosensitive reaction induced by the contact to or oral LCL161 in vivo intake of a plant and subsequent exposure to sunlight. Its acute course is called phototoxic. In this paper, two cases developed phototoxic reaction with the consumption of Plantago lanceolata and subsequent exposure to the sunlight. These cases were presented since such effect of the plant has not been known previously and there is no resembling case in

the literature.”
“The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, procedural details, and outcomes of patients undergoing elective multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention (MV-PCI) in Europe. A total of 7113 patients with stable coronary artery disease and at least two major epicardial vessels with a parts per thousand yen70% stenosis were included in this analysis of the contemporary Euro Heart Survey PCI registry. Patients undergoing MV-PCI (n = 3376, 47.5%) were compared with those with single-vessel PCI (SV-PCI) (n = 3737, 52.5%). Patients with MV-PCI were more likely to have congestive heart failure, whereas those with SV-PCI more often suffered from noncardiac comorbidities. Hospital mortality (0.1% vs 0.3%) and the incidence of nonfatal postprocedural myocardial infarction (1.0% vs 0.7%) were low in patients with MV-PCI and SV-PCI.

Total folate intakes were derived by combining intakes of food fo

Total folate intakes were derived by combining intakes of food folate (naturally occurring and folic

acid from fortified foods) on the basis of 24-h dietary recall results and folic acid intakes from dietary supplements on the basis of a 30-d questionnaire.

Results: More than 95% of US children consumed at least the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for folate selleck from foods alone. More than one-third (35%) of US children aged 1-13 y used dietary supplements, and 28% used dietary supplements containing folic acid. Supplement users had significantly higher total folate and folic acid intakes than did nonusers. More than half (53%) of dietary supplement users exceeded the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for total folic acid (fortified food + supplements) as compared with 5% of nonusers.

Conclusions: Total folate intakes of most US children aged 1-13 y meet MG-132 nmr the EAR. Children who used dietary supplements had significantly higher total folate intakes and exceeded the UL by >50%. Am J Clin Nutr 2010; 92: 353-8.”
“A nonradiative energy transformer exploiting TiO2 nano-powder and (C4H6O2)(x) latex as a combined interlayer is proposed. The transformer works on ‘strong coupling’ between two coils (i.e.,

resonators), which are physically separated from each other by distances that are longer than the characteristic sizes of each resonator, to realize efficient wireless energy transfer. Nonradiative energy transfer between the two resonators is facilitated through the coupling of their resonant-field evanescent tails. Finite element analysis and experiments

have been carried out to facilitate quantitative comparison. The efficiency of the proposed system is 70.6% at 5 cm and 26.3% at 15 cm at an operating frequency of 1.74 MHz. When compared with typical magnetic inductive coupling energy transmission devices with low dielectric constants, the efficiency of the proposed system is much higher. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3536558]“
“The goal of the article was to describe the preparation of carboxyl-functionalized polylactic acid (PLA) through the method of direct melt copolycondensation of lactic and citric acid (CA). In addition, detailed see more study of copolycondensation process, its limitations and investigation of the reaction products properties are another issue this article deals with. The effect of tricarboxylic CA on the resulting properties of the functionalized lactic acid (LA) polycondesates was studied in a wide range of LA/CA molar ratios. The influence of CA on molecular weight, thermal and physicochemical properties, and chemical structure of the products was investigated, using viscometric measurements of the polymer solutions, gel permeation chromatography, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, acidity number determination, and Fourier-transform infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy.

9; 95% CI: 1 9-8 0%); being a sex worker (ORaj = 1 9; 95% CI:

9; 95% CI: 1.9-8.0%); being a sex worker (ORaj = 1.9; 95% CI:


Conclusions: A high prevalence of a prior history of STDs in the studied population was found. It is essential to find better ways to access HIV infection prevention, so that effective interventions can be more widely implemented. Nirogacestat mouse (C) 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.”
“Despite hypothesized concerns about deterioration beginning in adolescence, longitudinal data and associated factors regarding standardized assessment of physical functioning are not available for Fontan patients. Parents who participated in the Fontan Cross-Sectional Study completed the Child Health Questionnaire at 2 time points for 245 subjects ages 6-18 years. Associations between change in Physical Functioning Summary Score and baseline patient, medical, and laboratory characteristics (mean age 9.5 +/- A 1.7 years) and follow-up patient and medical characteristics (mean age 16.2 +/- A 1.6 years) were determined by regression analyses. During a mean of 6.7 +/- A 0.4 years, a small (not clinically important) but statistically significant decrease in score from 46.2 +/- A 11.7 to 44.5 +/- A 12.1 (p < 0.03) was noted. Subjects with higher baseline scores had a greater decrease in score (r = -0.48; p < 0.001). A multivariable model Dihydrotestosterone of patient

and medical characteristics (R (2) = 0.11) showed that a greater decrease in score was significantly associated with interim development of asthma (n = 13; parameter estimate [PE] -6.6; p < 0.05) or other chronic respiratory, lung, or breathing problems (n = 13; PE -12.5; p < 0.001) and the presence of protein-losing enteropathy at any time (n = 12; PE -9.4; p = 0.006). Change in score was not significantly associated with baseline laboratory measures of exercise capacity and ventricular

characteristics and function. Therefore, although physical functioning may be stable during adolescence for many Fontan patients, deterioration occurs in some in Dorsomorphin order association with respiratory conditions and protein-losing enteropathy. Further longitudinal study is necessary to better understand the relationship between clinical morbidities and functional health status as these patients transition into adulthood.”
“Objective. To demonstrate a relationship between enuresis and nocturia. Material and methods. The study investigated 250 mothers (average age 34.6 +/- 3.3 years) whose children attended the Department of Pediatrics of the Second University of Naples because they suffered from enuresis. Data were collected by self-reported questionnaire and personal interview. All women provided written informed consent with guarantees of confidentiality. Both the presence of nocturia in adulthood and enuresis in childhood were taken into account. Results. The overall prevalence of nocturia was 38% (n = 95).

Results: Whole-brain median ADC was a significant predictor of po

Results: Whole-brain median ADC was a significant predictor of poor outcome as measured by no eye opening (specificity, 100% [95% confidence interval CI: 86%, 100%]; sensitivity, 30% [ 95% CI: 18%, 45%]) AZD6738 mouse or 6-month modified Rankin scale score greater than 3 ( specificity, 100% [ 95% CI: 73%, 100%];

sensitivity, 41% [95% CI: 29%, 54%]), with patients with poor outcomes having significantly lower ADCs for both outcome measures (P <= .001). Differences in ADC between patients with good and those with poor outcomes varied according to brain region, involving predominantly the occipital and parietal lobes and the putamen, and were dependent on the timing of imaging.


Spatial and temporal differences in ADCs may provide insight into mechanisms of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and, hence, recovery.”
“In preterm infants, the germinal matrix is a common origin of hemorrhages during the first 7 days of life. Sonographically, germinal matrix hemorrhages present as subventricular echodensities evolving into pseudocysts. Similar lesions have been reported as incidental findings click here also beyond 7 days of life. They may result from vasculitis and ischemic infarction, rather than hemorrhage. To assess the occurrence, time course, and significance for neurodevelopment of such late germinal matrix hemorrhage-like lesions, we reviewed serial cerebral ultrasound examinations obtained in 86 sequentially admitted infants (gestational age <32 weeks or birth weight <1500 g). Neurodevelopment was

assessed at 3 years (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). Nine infants had late isolated germinal matrix hemorrhage-like lesions. Their Psychomotor Development Index scores were significantly lower than that in infants without hemorrhage. Our results suggest that late isolated germinal matrix hemorrhage-like lesions are of clinical significance because of their notable incidence and association with neurodevelopmental Tubastatin A purchase outcome.”
“Background: Lateral mass screw fixation with plates or rods has become the standard method of posterior cervical spine fixation and stabilization for a variety of surgical indications. Despite ubiquitous usage, the safety and efficacy of this technique have not yet been established sufficiently to permit “”on-label”" U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for lateral mass screw fixation systems. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety profile and effectiveness of such systems when used in stabilizing the posterior cervical spine.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE and the Cochrane Collaboration Library for articles published from January 1, 1980, to December 1, 2011.

RESULTS: Rats administered p38 alpha shRNA plasmids showed a

RESULTS: Rats administered p38 alpha shRNA plasmids showed a

selleck compound significant downregulation in lung expression of p38 alpha transcripts and protein levels. Compared with the control group, the p38 alpha shRNA group showed a higher pulmonary vein oxygen level, lower wet weight-to-dry weight ratio, lower lung injury score, and lower serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. Messenger RNA levels of ICAM-1 and c-Myc in the p38 alpha shRNA group were dramatically lower than in the control group. Levels of ICAM-1 protein expression exhibited a similar trend. Cell apoptosis decreased in the p38 alpha shRNA group vs the control group.

CONCLUSION: Intratracheal administration of p38 alpha shRNA plasmids provided therapeutic effects in a rat model of lung transplantation.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:655-62 Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Animal pollination is one of the essential services provided by ecosystems to humans. In the face of a potential worldwide pollination crisis it is important to assess which countries may be more vulnerable in order to prioritize pollinator conservation efforts. The poverty level, the population density and the level of pollinator dependence for food provisioning are key aspects to identify vulnerable countries. We evaluate these aspects and determine the level of human food provisioning dependence on pollinators in Mexico, a developing and highly populated country. selleck inhibitor The diversity of crop species in Mexico is exceptionally high. Nearly 85% of fruit and/or seed consumed species depend to some degree on pollinators for productivity. Overall, pollinator-dependent crops generate larger income but cover a lower cultivated area and produce less volume compared to non-pollinator-dependent crops. Volume per unit area, however, as well as revenue per unit area, is much higher for pollinator-dependent crops. Native wild pollinators also play a key role in fruit or seed production of Mexican domesticated

plant species and in the reproduction of many useful wild species. Thus, assuring free Torin 2 pollination services is particularly important in Mexico as the livelihood of a large proportion of the population exclusively and directly depends on ecosystem services for subsistence. Feasible conservation strategies involve the payment of environmental services to Ejidos (communal land tenure systems) making efforts to protect or restore plant resources and native pollinators, and the creation of new protected natural areas, which ensures food provision, mating and nesting sites for pollinators. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A case of young man with low back ache and heel pains who was examined in a rheumatology outpatient and diagnosed as familial hypophosphatemia (FH), probably X-linked (XL), is presented. FH is most commonly transmitted as XL.

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1856-1863,

(C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 114: 1856-1863, 2009″
“Delayed hydride cracking (DHC) tests were conducted on a cold-worked Zr-2.5Nb tube with hydrogen at different test temperatures ranging from 100 to 350 degrees C. Striation spacing corresponding to a critical hydride length increased with temperature, demonstrating that hydride cracking resistance is enhanced with temperature. Nonetheless, the crack growth rate (CGR) had a positive temperature dependence below 300 degrees C, showing that at temperatures below 300 degrees C, the CGR is governed

by diffusion-controlled hydride growth. At higher temperatures above 300 degrees C, however, the CGR decreased rapidly, suggesting that the CGR is dictated not by the hydride growth rate but by the hydride cracking rate. This suggestion is evidenced by experiments

BGJ398 supplier where the threshold stress intensity factor for DHC or K(IH) increased sharply above 300 degrees C.”
“Several iron-related parameters have been reported to show significant heritability, and thus, seemed to be genetically regulated. A genome wide family-based study revealed two regions that showed a linkage signal with transferrin receptor levels. The aim of the study was to identify genetic markers associated with iron status biomarkers. Ten SNPs selected from the literature were tested, and parameters related to iron metabolism were analysed, in a group (n = 284) of Spanish women. Data were analyzed using Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) test and decision trees. The rs1375515, located in an intronic region of the calcium find more channel gene CACNA2D3, showed strong associations with levels of mean corpuscular volume according to BMA test, and with levels of haemoglobin and ferritin according to decision trees. The allele G was associated to low levels of these parameters which suggests higher iron deficiency anaemia risk. This SNP along with the

C282Y mutation explained significant differences in the distribution of individuals in three iron-related clinical phenotypes (normal, iron deficient and iron deficiency anaemic). In conclusion, the rs1375515, or other genetic polymorphisms in linkage, may play important roles in iron status, probably by affecting the function of a calcium channel. Selleckchem Small molecule library These findings may be useful for further investigation in the etiology of iron diseases.”
“Poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) nanofibers with disordered, helical, and yarn morphologies were controllably prepared by the electrospinning of a cationic polyelectrolyte precursor in an ethanol solution followed by thermal conversion. Through the tuning of the precursor solution properties and processing variables, the factors affecting the morphology of PPV fibers were studied. The diameter of these PPV nanofibers decreased with a decrease in the precursor concentration, and gradual blueshifts and changes in the relative intensity of the vibronic components in photoluminescence spectra were observed.

The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of patients

The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of patients with a high GFR and the incidence of myelotoxicity in this group.

Results: Overall 18 of 148 treated patients (14%) measured GFR >110mL/min. The GFR values of six of the 18 patients were capped for dose calculation. In eight patients a measured GFR corrected for body surface area was used and in four the actual measured GFR was used for JQ1 purchase dose calculation. In total, 63 cycles of chemotherapy were delivered. Grade III or IV myelotoxicity accounted for 37% (15/41) of all myelotoxicities. Neutropenia accounted for almost 39% of all myelotoxicities (16/41).

Two patients (11%) were hospitalized due to febrile neutropenia. Eight patients (40%) had dose reduction and four (20%) had treatment delays

due to myelotoxicity. The frequency of myelotoxicity was high irrespective of the GFR used (corrected or uncorrected) in calculating the chemotherapy dose.

Conclusion: High values of GFR, by 99mTc DTPA radionuclide measurement, are a common finding in pre-chemotherapy patients irrespective of age. Carboplatin dosing patterns in this group of patients vary among treating oncologists and a standardized approach is needed.”
“In this paper, we report that silver films evaporated on poly-ethylene-terephthalate ( PET) substrates coated with an acrylic primer can be stretched beyond 70% without fracture. As-deposited films show a larger failure strain than annealed Rigosertib research buy coatings. These observations are rationalized in light of a ductile fracture GW572016 mechanism where debonding from the substrate coevolves with strain localization. The results of this study indicate that PET substrates coated with an acrylic primer layer may be suitable for stretchable electronics. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi: 10.1063/1.3567917]“
“Aims: In this retrospective analysis, we describe

the efficacy and tolerability of weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m(2) used in concurrent chemoradiation of head and neck cancer at the Townsville Cancer Centre.

Methods: Review of medical records of patients who received radical chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer at Townsville Cancer Centre from 2003 to 2009.

Results: In all 102 patients were analysed, 62 of whom had definitive chemoradiation and the remainder adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Median follow up was 20.1 months (range 5-86 months). Overall 68.6% of patients received 5 weeks or more of planned chemotherapy. Radiotherapy interruptions occurred in four (6.4%) patients. The rate of grade 3-4 adverse events was 51% including neutropenia (18.6%), mucositis (21.8%) and dysphagia (12.9%) and 30.7% of patients needed hospital admission to manage toxicities. For definitive and adjuvant groups, estimated 3-year survival was 64.5 and 71.

Subsequent clinical trials and meta-analyses established that pri

Subsequent clinical trials and meta-analyses established that primary prophylaxis with filgrastim (beginning in the first cycle of chemotherapy) reduced the incidence of FN, FN-related

hospitalizations, intravenous anti-infective use, infection-related mortality, and the need for chemotherapy dose modification, compared with placebo or no treatment, in many tumor types. Pegfilgrastim, formed by the addition of a polyethylene glycol molecule to filgrastim, has comparable efficacy to filgrastim when administered only once per chemotherapy cycle. High-level evidence indicates that both filgrastim and pegfilgrastim improve the likelihood of completing dose-dense and dose-intense chemotherapy. The most recent guidelines from three international cancer organizations, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, the American JQ-EZ-05 mw Society of Clinical Oncology, and the US National JPH203 Comprehensive Cancer Network, are in agreement that

filgrastim or pegfilgrastim should be given prophylactically when the risk of FN with a chemotherapy regimen is >= 20%, or when the risk is 10-20% and the patient has other risk factors for FN. The development of filgrastim and pegfilgrastim has revolutionized oncology practice. Prophylactic use of these agents has enabled development of more aggressive chemotherapy regimens, including dose-dense chemotherapy, and treatment of a broader range of patients.”
“Purpose: To investigate in vitro the factors affecting microdialysis probe delivery and recovery of puerarin.

Methods: The recovery and delivery of puerarin were tested for extraction efficiency

Androgen Receptor inhibitor and retro-dialysis methods. Factors such as drug concentration, stirring speed, additives and length of membrane were studied to determine differences between recovery and delivery.

Results: It was observed that the delivery of the targeting analyte was different from its recovery. Both delivery and recovery of puerarin were independent of the concentration of the drug. Probe delivery increased from 62.18 to 67.98 % (p < 0.01), recovery from 59.19 to 78.44 % (p < 0.01), as stirring speed was increased from 0 to 800 rpm. The difference between them directly correlated with stirring speed in the range 2.99 to 10.46 %. Besides additives, length of membrane also had a strong influence on delivery and recovery. Probe delivery in saline containing 10 % each of ethanol and propylene glycol declined from 62.18 to 42.12 % (p < 0.01), while recovery increased slightly but insignificantly (p < 0.01). Both delivery and recovery declined when the length of membrane was reduced.

Conclusion: The in vitro experiments indicate that it would be incorrect to equate delivery with recovery of puerarin in in vivo microdialysis experiments.

Sequence analysis revealed that the VP2 gene of PPV-NE/09 had clo

Sequence analysis revealed that the VP2 gene of PPV-NE/09 had close sequence similarity with the VP2 gene of other PPV strains. However, a 27 nucleotide region that encodes a glycine-rich domain at PCI-34051 solubility dmso the N-terminal region of VP2 was deleted in the PPV-NE/09 strain. The PPV-NE/09 virions were purified by 1.39 g/ml CsCl density centrifugation and

subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that only two major polypeptides VP1 and VP2 with molecular weights of 83 and 64 kDa, respectively were observed, whereas VP3 with a molecular weight of 60 kDa was not present, in contrast to the PPV-NADL-2 strain. According to the phylogenetic relationship of the VP2 gene of PPV-NE/09, the isolate was

a new mutant strain of PPV prevailing in China. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast total hospital costs and subsequent reimbursement of implementing a new program using a third-generation left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in Norway.

METHODS: Between July 2005 and March 2008, the total costs of treatment for 9 patients were examined. Costs were calculated for three periods-the pre-implantation selleck inhibitor LVAD phase, the LVAD implantation phase and the post-implantation LVAD phase-as well as for total hospital care. Patient-specific costs were obtained prospectively from patient records and included personnel resources,

medication, blood products, blood chemistry and microbiology, imaging, and procedure costs including operating room costs. Overhead costs were registered SB273005 retrospectively and allocated to the specific patient by pre-defined allocation keys. Finally, patient-specific costs and overhead costs were aggregated into total patient costs.

RESULTS: The average total patient cost in 2007 U.S. dollars was $735,342 and the median was $613,087 (range $342,581 to $1,256,026). The mean length of stay was 77 days (range 40 to 127 days). For the LVAD implantation phase, the mean cost was $457,795 and median cost was $458,611 (range $246,239 to $677,680). The mean length of stay for the LVAD implantation phase was 55 days (range 25 to 125 days). The diagnosis-related group (DRG) reimbursement (2007) was $143,192.

CONCLUSIONS: There is significant discrepancy between actual hospital costs and the current Norwegian DRG reimbursement for the LVAD procedure. This discrepancy can be partly explained by excessive costs related to the introduction of a new program with new technology. Costly innovations should be considered in price setting of reimbursement for novel technology. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:72-78 (C) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.