Sequence analysis revealed that the VP2 gene of PPV-NE/09 had clo

Sequence analysis revealed that the VP2 gene of PPV-NE/09 had close sequence similarity with the VP2 gene of other PPV strains. However, a 27 nucleotide region that encodes a glycine-rich domain at PCI-34051 solubility dmso the N-terminal region of VP2 was deleted in the PPV-NE/09 strain. The PPV-NE/09 virions were purified by 1.39 g/ml CsCl density centrifugation and

subjected to SDS-PAGE analysis. The results showed that only two major polypeptides VP1 and VP2 with molecular weights of 83 and 64 kDa, respectively were observed, whereas VP3 with a molecular weight of 60 kDa was not present, in contrast to the PPV-NADL-2 strain. According to the phylogenetic relationship of the VP2 gene of PPV-NE/09, the isolate was

a new mutant strain of PPV prevailing in China. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast total hospital costs and subsequent reimbursement of implementing a new program using a third-generation left ventricular assist device (LVAD) in Norway.

METHODS: Between July 2005 and March 2008, the total costs of treatment for 9 patients were examined. Costs were calculated for three periods-the pre-implantation selleck inhibitor LVAD phase, the LVAD implantation phase and the post-implantation LVAD phase-as well as for total hospital care. Patient-specific costs were obtained prospectively from patient records and included personnel resources,

medication, blood products, blood chemistry and microbiology, imaging, and procedure costs including operating room costs. Overhead costs were registered SB273005 retrospectively and allocated to the specific patient by pre-defined allocation keys. Finally, patient-specific costs and overhead costs were aggregated into total patient costs.

RESULTS: The average total patient cost in 2007 U.S. dollars was $735,342 and the median was $613,087 (range $342,581 to $1,256,026). The mean length of stay was 77 days (range 40 to 127 days). For the LVAD implantation phase, the mean cost was $457,795 and median cost was $458,611 (range $246,239 to $677,680). The mean length of stay for the LVAD implantation phase was 55 days (range 25 to 125 days). The diagnosis-related group (DRG) reimbursement (2007) was $143,192.

CONCLUSIONS: There is significant discrepancy between actual hospital costs and the current Norwegian DRG reimbursement for the LVAD procedure. This discrepancy can be partly explained by excessive costs related to the introduction of a new program with new technology. Costly innovations should be considered in price setting of reimbursement for novel technology. J Heart Lung Transplant 2010;29:72-78 (C) 2010 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.

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