RESULTS: Rats administered p38 alpha shRNA plasmids showed a
selleck compound significant downregulation in lung expression of p38 alpha transcripts and protein levels. Compared with the control group, the p38 alpha shRNA group showed a higher pulmonary vein oxygen level, lower wet weight-to-dry weight ratio, lower lung injury score, and lower serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. Messenger RNA levels of ICAM-1 and c-Myc in the p38 alpha shRNA group were dramatically lower than in the control group. Levels of ICAM-1 protein expression exhibited a similar trend. Cell apoptosis decreased in the p38 alpha shRNA group vs the control group.
CONCLUSION: Intratracheal administration of p38 alpha shRNA plasmids provided therapeutic effects in a rat model of lung transplantation.
J Heart Lung Transplant 2012;31:655-62 Crown Copyright (C) 2012 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.”
“Animal pollination is one of the essential services provided by ecosystems to humans. In the face of a potential worldwide pollination crisis it is important to assess which countries may be more vulnerable in order to prioritize pollinator conservation efforts. The poverty level, the population density and the level of pollinator dependence for food provisioning are key aspects to identify vulnerable countries. We evaluate these aspects and determine the level of human food provisioning dependence on pollinators in Mexico, a developing and highly populated country. selleck inhibitor The diversity of crop species in Mexico is exceptionally high. Nearly 85% of fruit and/or seed consumed species depend to some degree on pollinators for productivity. Overall, pollinator-dependent crops generate larger income but cover a lower cultivated area and produce less volume compared to non-pollinator-dependent crops. Volume per unit area, however, as well as revenue per unit area, is much higher for pollinator-dependent crops. Native wild pollinators also play a key role in fruit or seed production of Mexican domesticated
plant species and in the reproduction of many useful wild species. Thus, assuring free Torin 2 pollination services is particularly important in Mexico as the livelihood of a large proportion of the population exclusively and directly depends on ecosystem services for subsistence. Feasible conservation strategies involve the payment of environmental services to Ejidos (communal land tenure systems) making efforts to protect or restore plant resources and native pollinators, and the creation of new protected natural areas, which ensures food provision, mating and nesting sites for pollinators. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A case of young man with low back ache and heel pains who was examined in a rheumatology outpatient and diagnosed as familial hypophosphatemia (FH), probably X-linked (XL), is presented. FH is most commonly transmitted as XL.