Oils with high content of free fatty acids can be treated by acid esterification where an alcohol reacts with the given oil in the presence of acid catalyst. In the current study, an equivolume blend of crude rubber seed oil and crude palm oil is fed to the reaction with methanol as the alcohol of choice and sulfuric acid. Selected reaction parameters were optimized, using Taguchi method for design of experiments, to yield the lowest free fatty acid content in the final product. The investigated parameters include alcohol to oil ratio, temperature and
amount of catalyst. The effect and significance of each parameter were then Mocetinostat Epigenetics inhibitor studied based on the fractional factorial design and verified by additional experiments. The optimum conditions for acid esterification which could reduce the free fatty acid content in the feedstock to lower than 0.6% (95% reduction) were 65 degrees C, 15:1 methanol to oil ratio (by mole) and 0.5 wt% H(2)SO(4) after 3 h of reaction time. Temperature had been found to have the most effect on the reduction of free MEK inhibitor fatty acids followed by reactants ratio while increasing catalyst amount had nominal effect. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A revision of the known Antarctic species of the genus Halecium has been carried out, based on the study of both type and non- type material.
For each species a list of synonyms, a diagnosis, a broad description (with the exception of the recently described H. frigidum and H. exaggeratum), a discussion of its relationship with other members of the genus, and an account of its autecological data are given. Thirteen Antarctic species of
the genus, including H. pseudodelicatulum sp. nov. and H. pseudoincertus sp. nov., are considered valid. Halecium tubatum is considered as species inquirenda. Halecium ovatum and H. macrocaulus are considered to be junior synonyms of H. interpolatum and H. incertus, respectively. The presence of H. delicatulum and H. tenellum in Antarctic waters is questioned. All Antarctic records found in the literature have been checked. The cnidome proved to be a useful tool for species identification in some Autophagy inhibitor cases. Finally, a general survey of the geographical and bathymetric distribution of the species is presented.”
“Studies of the relationship between male infertility and CYP1A1 polymorphisms are inconclusive. To drive a more precise estimation, we performed a meta-analysis based on 1060cases and 1225 controls from 7 published case-control studies. PubMed and CNKI literature search were conducted to identify all eligible studies investigating such a relationship. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in the additive model, dominant model, recessive model, and allele-frequency genetic model.