“Objectives. The purpose Cilengitide order of this study was to analyze the correlation parameters between the distal caries of the mandibular second molars (M2Ms) and the eruption status of the mandibular
third molars (M3Ms).
Study design. The records of 786 patients who had their M3Ms extracted from 2002 to 2007 at Samsung Medical Center were reviewed. The distal caries of M2Ms, age, gender, angulations, impaction degree, and distance between M2M and M3M were assessed.
Results. Among 883 M2Ms, 152 had distal caries (17.2%, caries group). In the caries group, 79.6% of M3Ms exhibited mesial angulation between 40 and 80 and 82.2% of M3Ms exhibited an impaction level in which the most coronal aspect of the M3M was located superior to the occlusal surface of the M2M. The distance between M2M and M3M (between cemontoenamel junctions) was 7-9 mm for 57.2% of the caries group.
Conclusions. The M3Ms under eruption status as described here could be considered for preventive extraction. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009; 108: 838-843)”
“Degeneration of central axons may
occur following injury or due to various diseases and it involves complex molecular mechanisms that need to be elucidated. Existing in vitro axotomy models are difficult to perform, and they provide limited information on the localization of events along the axon. We present here a novel experimental model system, based on microfluidic isolation, which consists of three distinct compartments, interconnected by parallel microchannels allowing axon
outgrowth. Neurons cultured in one compartment successfully elongated their Screening Library high throughput BIX 01294 supplier axons to cross a short central compartment and invade the outermost compartment. This design provides an interesting model system for studying axonal degeneration and death mechanisms, with a previously impossible spatial and temporal control on specific molecular pathways. We provide a proof-of-concept of the system by reporting its application to a well-characterized experimental paradigm, axotomy-induced Wallerian degeneration in primary central neurons. Using this model, we applied localized central axotomy by a brief, isolated flux of detergent. We report that mouse embryonic cortical neurons exhibit rapid Wallerian-like distal degeneration but no somatic death following central axotomy. Distal axons show progressive degeneration leading to axonal beading and cytoskeletal fragmentation within a few hours after axotomy. Degeneration is asynchronous, reminiscent of in vivo Wallerian degeneration. Axonal cytoskeletal fragmentation is significantly delayed with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide pretreatment, but it does not change when distal calpain or caspase activity is inhibited. These findings, consistent with previous experiments in vivo, confirm the power and biological relevance of this microfluidic architecture.”
“Study Design. Microstructural investigation of anular structure.