DBS is a relatively well-tolerated therapy, the most common adverse events
being associated with the neurosurgical procedure: infection, hemorrhage, perioperative headache, seizure, and lead fracture.30-31 Specific side effects can be associated with acute and chronic stimulation. The target for DBS electrode placement can vary significantly based on the disorder being treated and the neuroanatomical models of the disorder. DBS devices have been approved by the FDA for the treatment of movement disorders and have shown good efficacy in treatment of Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia.32 Additionally, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical DBS has been explored in several neuropsychiatric disorders. The first neuropsychiatric application of DBS was for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD),33 with electrodes placed in the anterior Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical limb of the internal capsule—a previous ablative target for treating severe, treatment-refractory OCD. Subsequent studies have suggested a modest, but clinically significant benefit for DBS in patients with severe, treatment-refractory OCD.34 A DBS system has received a Humanitarian Device Exemption from the FDA Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical for the treatment of OCD. Hie first cases of using DBS for Gilles de laTourette syndrome occurred around the same time as for OCD,35 and in larger studies efficacy has been
demonstrated for various targets.36 DBS has also been proposed for the treatment of severe, treatment-resistant
addiction, where a small dataset supported efficacy in treating this disorder.37 The unexpected observation of cognitive improvement Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical in dementia in a study of DBS for obesity38 has led to its evaluation as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s dementia.39 Significant interest has been generated by the potential for DBS to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical treat severe TRD. In this review, the clinical data on safety and efficacy of DBS in TRD will be presented. The role of neuroimaging in the development and optimization of DBS will be discussed, as well as its role in studying mechanisms of action. Further, preclinical animal data on potential mechanisms Ergoloid of DBS for TRD will be reviewed. Finally, critical ethical issues related to decision-making capacity and informed consent for TRD patients DNA-PK inhibitor considering DBS will be examined. Clinical data on deep brain stimulation for treatment-resistant depression Subcallosal cingulate The first target investigated for DBS for TRD was the subcallosal cingulate (SCC) white matter, occasionally referred to as Cg25 or Brodmann area 25.40 This target was chosen based on a neuroimaging database which suggested that this region was critical for depression and the antidepressant response—especially in TRD.41 In an initial proof-of-concept study, four of six patients with extreme TRD were in or near remission following 6 months of open-label chronic SCC DBS.