At the end of the procedure, intraperitoneal local anesthetic dru

At the end of the procedure, intraperitoneal local anesthetic drugs such as naropine 0.2% at a dose of 0.5mL/kg are instilled in the peritoneal cavity through one of the trocars. Postoperative analgesia is administered selleck bio via an elastomeric intravenous pump with tramadol 2�C8mcg/kg/min for 24 hours plus repeated doses of paracetamol 10mg/kg every 8 hours. Nausea is controlled by ondansetron 0.15mg/kg every 8 hours, and rescue analgesic therapy consists of ketoprofene 1mg/kg every 8 hours. When the appendectomy is considered impossible to be safely completed with any laparoscopic technique, it is converted to an open access. A primary open access is chosen only when the performing surgeons are not trained in laparoscopy or abdominal distension is prominent.

An expert TULA surgeon is defined as a surgeon who has performed at least 30 procedures as first operator or is trained in laparoscopy. 3. Results From January 2006 until December 2010, 203 patients (79 female and 124 male) with an average age of 10 years (range 3�C17) were admitted to our surgical ward with a diagnosis of appendicitis. Seven (3.4%) out of 203 patients presented with an appendiceal mass and were treated conservatively according to the protocol: none required urgent surgery, and they all underwent interval TULAA 8 weeks later. The remaining 196 patients (96.5%) underwent urgent surgery. In 15 out of 196 cases, a primary open access was chosen: in 3 cases for marked abdominal distension, in one case because the surgical team was not sufficiently trained in laparoscopy, and in 11 cases because of palpation of a mass at the induction of anesthesia, and neither surgeons was an expert operator.

Sixty-six percent of the primary open accesses were performed in the first two years of the study. Urgent TULAA was carried out in 181 patients. The intraoperative TULAA finding (Figure 2) was uninflamed appendicitis in 18 cases (10%), uncomplicated acute appendicitis (catarrhal/phlegmonous without signs of perforation) in 109 (60%) cases, 49 (27%) cases were either gangrenous or perforated appendicitis with local peritonitis, and 5 (3%) were diffuse peritonitis. The 7 elective cases operated on after antibiotic treatment showed an appendix with adhesions but no acute inflammation. None of these was converted, one required an additional trocar, and no complications were recorded.

The mean operatory time for the elective procedure was 43��. Figure 2 TULAA intraoperative finding. Macroscopic staging of the appendiceal inflammation. Of all 181 Anacetrapib urgent TULAA, 12 (6.6%) were converted: in 3 cases the intraoperative finding was nonperforated appendicitis with retrocaecal position, in 8 cases there was a perforation with local peritonitis, and one was a diffuse peritonitis. Nine operations were converted by a team of nonexpert surgeons, and 3 by a team in which at least one surgeon was considered expert.

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