2009) In previous studies, neuron atrophy, but not loss, in MOG-

2009). In previous studies, research neuron atrophy, but not loss, in MOG-induced EAE of C57BL/6 mice has been indicated (Bannerman et al. 2005). By using Thy1-YFP transgenic mice, we were able to characterize and serially count motor neurons in the ventral horn of T1-T5 spinal cord sections. Spinal cords of vehicle-treated EAE mice showed similar numbers of motor neurons compared to normal controls. Analogous to previous studies, we consistently found significant decreases in neuronal processes and dendrites, as well as atrophied cell somas (Fig. ​(Fig.6B6B Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical i). The pre-EAE

LQ-treated group showed similar neuronal numbers, no sign of atrophy, and no significant process loss, in contrast with the vehicle-treated EAE group. Most remarkable

was the effect of 25 mg/kg LQ treatment after peak EAE disease – no atrophy of motor neuron soma, no decrease in processes, and no dendrite decrease was observed compared to the vehicle-treated EAE group. Quantification of Thy1-YFP Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical or NF200+ (not shown) neurons colabeled with DAPI showed no significant differences between groups (Fig. ​(Fig.6B6B i, iii). Our previous work has shown a significant decrease in axon numbers and myelination in white matter of spinal cord by post-induction day 21 of EAE (Tiwari-Woodruff et al. 2007; Mangiardi et al. 2011). The effect of LQ treatment during peak disease on axonal pathology and demyelination was evaluated. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Similar to previous observations, and in comparison with normal controls, vehicle-treated EAE ventral funiculus of thoracic spinal cords showed a significant decrease in myelinated (MBP+ and NF200+) axons (Fig. ​(Fig.6B6B ii). In comparison with the vehicle-treated group, 25 mg/kg LQ pre-EAE and peak EAE groups exhibited an increase in myelinated axon numbers (Fig. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical ​(Fig.3B3B ii, v, vi). Quantification of NF200 staining in the ventral

funiculus revealed a 40 ± 12% (P < 0.001) reduction in vehicle-treated EAE mice as compared with healthy controls, whereas mice treated with LQ beginning at Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical peak clinical disease showed a significant recovery to ~70% myelinated axons of normal controls (Fig. ​(Fig.6B6B ii, iv). Therapeutic treatment with 25 mg/kg LQ after onset Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase of EAE clinical disease attenuates EAE-induced callosal conduction deficits LQ treatment in EAE animals initiated after peak EAE disease attenuated axon damage and increased axon myelination. If this recovery is sufficient and functional, then it should afford improved axon conduction as compared to vehicle-treated EAE animals. CAP recordings of callosal axons were performed as described above (Crawford et al. 2010). A distinct improvement in peak N1 and N2 CAP amplitudes was observed in the LQ-treated pre-EAE group, as previously seen. Surprisingly, LQ treatment after peak disease resulted in a significant recovery in N1 and N2 CAP amplitudes, similar to pre-EAE LQ treatment and normal controls (Fig.

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