To better demonstrate the size evolution of embedded Pb particles after supersaturation and nucleation regimes, we report in Figure 7 both R and R 2 of the growing particles as a function of implantation fluence f. There is a linear relation between R 2 and f, indicating the diffusion limited growth of embedded Pb NPs with their average radius ranging from 2.1 to 8.9 nm. Moreover, the lower limit of diffusion R406 datasheet coefficient D = 0.15 nm2/s is
obtained by neglecting C ∞ and assuming the molar volume of Pb precipitates V a to be that of bulk Pb and the upper limit of C m to be that of C C . The motion of Pb atoms is expected to be assisted by the radiation induced collision cascade and vacancies. When the implantation fluence exceeds 4.0 × 1016 cm-2, the Pb NPs exposed at the sample surface start to be sputtered. Figure 7 R (■) and R 2 (□) versus implantation fluence. The solid line (—) is the diffusion growth model fitted to the experimental P5091 purchase data. The aggregation of Pb into NPs in these implanted samples occurs even after room temperature implantation with no further annealing suggesting a high mobility of implanted Pb atoms in Al and some beam heating effects were present. To study the dynamic effects involved, we examined the current density dependence of the size evolution
of Pb NPs. Figure 8 shows the R SCH727965 2 of the growing particles as a function of implantation fluence f with different implantation current densities. A linear relation between R 2 and f with a changed slope is identified
by changing the implantation current density φ from 0.5 to 2.0 μA/cm2. The variation of slope in the plot of R 2 versus f suggests a change of the diffusion coefficient D of Pb atoms in Al, which is estimated to be 0.15, 0.08, and 0.04 nm2/s, respectively, by decreasing current density. The dependence clearly demonstrates that the aggregation process of the implanted Pb is altered by a change in ion-beam current density. During implantation, the sample was heated caused by the beam bombardment. In previous investigations, significant temperature enhancement, which is current density dependent, was observed in implanted samples [31, 32]. In our case, the closed contact between the sample and its holder is expected to reduce the heating effect compared to the case with limited these contact. However, the residual heat in sample is still evident to be current dependent and to increase the temperature of the samples allowing enhanced migration, i.e., high diffusion coefficient, of Pb atoms and thus coalescence into larger Pb NPs. Figure 8 R 2 versus implantation fluence with different implantation current densities. The solid line (—) is the diffusion growth model fitted to the experimental data. Conclusions We have investigated the clustering process of Pb atoms implanted in a single crystalline Al layer grown on Si(111).