Clearly, the question of the in vivo role of inhibition in the MS

Clearly, the question of the in vivo role of inhibition in the MSO has not been fully answered. The second study in this issue (Roberts et al., 2013) provides new

insight into the role that inhibition may play in the MSO. Roberts and colleagues developed a new thick slice preparation that includes the whole macrocircuit shown in Figure 1A, except for the cochlea. They were thus able to stimulate the auditory nerve and obtain IPSP and EPSP recordings from the MSO cells. This is the first time that IPSPs evoked by auditory nerve stimulation have been obtained from MSO neurons in brain slices. Vismodegib mouse Surprisingly, they found that stimulating the inhibitory inputs from the LNTB and MNTB caused IPSPs in MSO neurons 300–400 μs prior to excitation, even though these pathways involve an extra synapse. They suggest that all the inhibitory sources of input to the MSO provide feed-forward inhibition that restricts the

MSO neuron from firing except when the binaural excitatory inputs provide the largest, most synchronous EPSPs. In contrast to the in vivo experiments that blocked inhibition (Pecka et al., 2008), Roberts et al. (2013) did not find that the presence Y-27632 solubility dmso of inhibition shifted the location of the ITD function. Furthermore, both studies in this issue provide a case study of how to achieve linear synaptic integration using cellular mechanisms, like inhibitory synaptic conductances and potassium channel gating, that are individually nonlinear. What are the biophysical mechanisms that allow coincidence detection à la Jeffress to occur? In the barn owls, recent tour de force in vivo recordings have Adenosine shown that NL (the bird analog of the MSO) neurons have remarkable properties: (1) a very low input resistance and a passive soma that is devoid of Na+ channels, (2) insanely fast EPSCs (half-width of 100 μs; perhaps due to higher bird-brain temperatures of 40°C–41°C), and (3) hundreds of phase-locked synaptic inputs from the contra and ipsilateral afferent

axons (analogs of the SBC axons shown in Figure 1A; Funabiki et al., 2011). This allows the bird’s NL neurons to function as leaky coincidence detectors that produce phase-locked spikes to sound frequencies of up to 8 kHz (Köppl, 2012). In mammals, phase locking can occur only for frequencies < 2–3 kHz. Like NL neurons, MSO neurons are very leaky (input resistance of 5–10 MΩ) and have small spikes (about 10–30 mV in amplitude), but unlike NL neurons they receive surprisingly few excitatory inputs from SBC axons (2–4 large excitatory fibers per dendrite) and do not appear to have ultrafast EPSCs (Couchman et al., 2010). The role of inhibition in these two circuits is also very different (see Roberts et al., 2013). Thus, the biophysical mechanisms for coding low frequency sounds appear to be very different in birds and small-headed mammals.

, 2009) These data suggest that the proteasome is a key downstre

, 2009). These data suggest that the proteasome is a key downstream mediator of localized activity-dependent Caspase cleavage neuronal signaling and therefore may play a role in activity-dependent spinogenesis. In this study, we used pharmacological and genetic manipulations in combination with time-lapse two-photon microscopy and two-photon glutamate uncaging to investigate the role of the proteasome in new spine growth on dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons. We show that acute inhibition of the proteasome rapidly reduces the rate

of spine outgrowth. Synaptic activity, NMDA receptors, and CaMKII, but not PKA, are upstream regulators of proteasome-mediated spine outgrowth, which is dependent upon interaction between CaMKII and the GluN2B subunit of the NMDA receptor. The S120 residue of the Rpt6 proteasomal subunit is critical for proteasome-dependent spine outgrowth in individual neurons, indicating that the proteasome acts postsynaptically and in a cell-autonomous manner to regulate spine outgrowth. Our data support a model in which synaptic

activity promotes spine outgrowth via an NMDA receptor- and CaMKII-mediated regulation of local proteasomal degradation. To determine whether the proteasome plays a role in regulating the growth of new dendritic spines, we used pharmacological manipulations and time-lapse two-photon microscopy to measure the effect of acute inhibition of the proteasome on CYTH4 the rate of spine outgrowth. Hippocampal pyramidal neurons in organotypic slice cultures Selleckchem Dabrafenib were transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and imaged using a two-photon microscope. Dendrites of EGFP-expressing CA1 neurons were imaged at 15 or 20 min intervals before and after treatment with drugs or vehicle (Figure 1A). Treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 (10 μM) reduced the rate of spine outgrowth to half (52% ± 12%) that of vehicle-treated control cells (100% ± 13%; p < 0.05; Figure 1B).

Because MG132 inhibits the activity of calpains as well as the proteasome, we confirmed our findings with the proteasome-specific inhibitor lactacystin. Treatment with lactacystin (10 μM) reduced the rate of spine outgrowth by 68% (32% ± 7%) as compared to vehicle control (100% ± 13%; p < 0.001; Figure 1C). Similar reductions in spine outgrowth were observed for both apical and basal dendrites (see Figure S1A available online). The reduction in spine outgrowth due to lactacystin was not significantly different than that due to MG132 (p = 0.2), suggesting that reduced spine outgrowth in the presence of MG132 is specifically due to inhibition of the proteasome. To ensure that the effect of proteasome inhibition was saturated, we doubled the concentration of lactacystin in the bath.

In agreement, another study using the DAKO-supplied antibody reve

In agreement, another study using the DAKO-supplied antibody revealed expression in a 100% of analyzed metastatic testis teratoma SAHA HDAC [95]. Puzzling, however, remains that none of the analyzed female mature teratomas was found to express

IGF2BPs [95]. In urothelial carcinomas, IGF2BP3 expression, again exclusively assessed by the DAKO-supplied antibody, was correlated with an overall poor prognosis, increased metastasis and was elevated with increased tumor grade/stage [96], [97], [98], [99] and [100]. Notably, IGF2BP3 expression again was not associated with upregulated IGF2 or CD44 abundance, as also observed in other cancers [96]. Consistent with other carcinomas, upregulated expression of IGF2BP3, once again exclusively analyzed by the DAKO-supplied antibody, was observed in lung and esophageal cancer. Expression was associated with higher tumor grading and reached a 100% in small cell and metastatic lung cancer [101], [102], [103], [104], [105] and [106]. A bulk of studies indicates IGF2BP expression to be upregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC; [41], [42], [43], DNA Damage inhibitor [107], [108], [109] and [110]). All studies relied on the DAKO-supplied antibody and thus paralogue-specific expression signatures remain yet to be addressed. However, as observed in other carcinomas, the expression of IGF2BP3 was correlated

with an overall poor prognosis [41], [42] and [110] and confirmed as a predictor of lymph node status [108] and metastasis

[41], [43] and [107]. In agreement, in vitro studies suggested IGF2BP3-dependent to enhancement of podoplanin (PDPN) expression, which was proposed to promote tumor cell invasiveness [43]. Notably, PDPN and IGF2BP3 expression significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis in OSCC patients. Various studies reported upregulated expression of IGF2BP3 in keratoacanthomas, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the skin [111], melanoma [112], [113], [114] and [115] and merkel cell carcinoma [116]. All these studies relied on the DAKO-supplied antibody and thus paralogue-specific expression remains yet to be investigated. As observed for various other solid cancers, higher incidence of IGF2BP3 expression was observed in invasive SCC of the skin [111] and metastatic melanoma [113] and [114]. Notably, one study revealed that the expression of IGF2BP1 (Chr.17q) and/or IGF2BP3 (Chr.7p) in metastatic melanoma could be increased due to chromosomal gain [115]. In agreement, we recently reported that IGF2BP1 enhances the migratory potential and a mesenchymal-like cell phenotype in melanoma-derived tumor cells [36]. In thyroid cancers of follicular origin, IGF2BP expression, mainly assessed by immunostaining using the DAKO-supplied antibody, was proposed to be of diagnostic value [117], [118] and [119].

E and U H , unpublished data) Regardless, aru and both the PI3K

E. and U.H., unpublished data). Regardless, aru and both the PI3K/Akt and Egfr/Erk pathways are needed during development to establish normal ethanol sensitivity. Yet it is likely that they function in multiple processes taking place at more than a single developmental period. Clearly, aru (this work) and http://www.selleckchem.com/products/sch-900776.html PI3K ( Martín-Peña et al., 2006) affect both larval and adult nervous system development, as alteration of synapse number is evident upon their genetic manipulation. Of note, although a role for Erk in bouton growth at the larval NMJ has been described ( Koh et al.,

2002), its true function remains unclear ( Wairkar et al., 2009). Our genetic epistasis experiments between Erk, PI3K, and aru can be interpreted in various non-mutually exclusive ways. One interpretation is that aru function may be required earlier in development than either the Egfr/Erk or PI3K/Akt pathways, its absence thus precluding the normal execution of these pathways’ functions. An alternative interpretation is that aru functions downstream of the Egfr/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways, but does so in different neurons/brain circuits (see below). With regard to intracellular mechanisms, although activation of the Egfr can stimulate the PI3K pathway (Engelman et al., 2006), we found that analogous panneuronal manipulations (i.e.,

activation or inhibition) of these two pathways lead to opposite effects on ethanol sensitivity. These observations suggest that, in this context, Cobimetinib mouse Egfr overexpression does not necessarily activate PI3K, and that Egfr/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways predominantly function in different neurons/neural circuits. Indeed, Egfr overexpression in dopaminergic neurons, but not PDF neurons ( Corl et al., 2009), reduces ethanol GPX6 sensitivity. Conversely, PI3K overexpression in PDF, but not the dopaminergic neurons, enhances ethanol sensitivity (this work). aru is expressed in PDF neurons ( Kula-Eversole et al., 2010) and we show that its knockdown specifically in these neurons affects ethanol sensitivity. In contrast, aru knockdown in dopaminergic neurons was inconsequential. Thus, while aru is needed for the effects of panneuronal Egfr/Erk

overexpression/activation, it does not appear to be a target of this pathway in dopaminergic neurons or the insulin-producing cells, two loci where Egfr overexpression affects ethanol sensitivity ( Corl et al., 2009 and Corl et al., 2005). Therefore, the Egfr/Erk pathway probably activates aru in neurons we have yet to identify. In summary, given that Aru is an adaptor protein with the potential to interact with multiple partners, we hypothesize that Aru carries out two distinct functions mediated by two different pathways in separable neuroanatomical loci. As aru and the Egfr/Erk and PI3K/Akt pathways are quite ubiquitously expressed, it is likely that Aru binding partners are context dependent and that these partners contribute to the different aru-mediated mechanisms affecting ethanol sensitivity.

An interesting design for voltage-sensitive dyes is one with a mi

An interesting design for voltage-sensitive dyes is one with a mixture of organic and genetic components (Figure 2E). These hybrid strategies began with a FRET-based system, composed of an oxonol derivative that functioned as the donor and a Texas Red-labeled lectin as an acceptor (González and Tsien, 1995). Oxonols insert into the membrane and reside on one leaflet or the other depending on the membrane potential. The fluorescently labeled lectin is not membrane permeable and sits only on the outside of the membrane, and through changes in the energy transfer efficiency between the two species, it can be used GABA receptor signaling to monitor the position of the oxonol and, thus, the

membrane potential. Another strategy (Chanda et al., 2005) uses a hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) that consists

of a molecule of GFP fused to a farnesylated and palmitoylated Lumacaftor mouse motif that attaches it to the membrane. The second component is the synthetic compound dipicrylamine (DPA) that serves as a voltage-sensing acceptor and translocates across the membrane, depending on the electric field. Unfortunately, DPA increases the membrane capacitance, so care must be taken to ensure the concentrations used do not disrupt the native physiological responses. Recently, there have been some promising results from purely chemical hybrid systems, such as the DPA-diO hybrid (Figure 4B). This combination has high sensitivity to voltage and uses low DPA concentrations, although more work needs to be done for consistent, calibrated voltage imaging in extended 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase experiments (Bradley et al., 2009). Hybrid strategies appear more chemically flexible than pure genetic approaches, although at the same time, they are complicated by the application of exogenous species. It can be argued that fluorescence or absorption approaches are intrinsically flawed when optically probing interfaces, because of their lack of spatial specificity

(Eisenthal, 1996). Unless a fluorophore or chromophore is selectively localized at the interface, the interface-specific signal will be greatly overwhelmed by the many other fluorophores/chromophores residing in the bulk solution, and this argument can be extended to biological membranes. SHG solves this problem by only generating signal at the interface itself (Campagnola et al., 1999, Eisenthal, 1996 and Moreaux et al., 2001). SHG is a coherent hyperscattering phenomenon by which the incoming light beam’s electric field induces a second order nonlinear polarization in the media, resulting in the emission of a photon of exactly twice the frequency (half the wavelength) of the incident photons (Figure 2F). In the asymmetric environment of interfaces, any molecules with nonsymmetric chemical or electrical properties can spontaneously align themselves with respect to the interface, whereas in solution, or the bulk media, they will be isotropically distributed and hence not oriented.

8 and 9 While several studies that have examined the views of pre

8 and 9 While several studies that have examined the views of prescribers, pharmacists and consumers on issues related generic medicines policies and practices in Malaysia and elsewhere,4 studies examining the views of generic medicines producers are yet to be reported in Malaysia and are generally scanty elswhere.10 Therefore, the overall aim of this study is to provide the views of the Malaysian generic industry “insiders” on generic medicines

policies and practices in Malaysia, given that similar studies have not been carried out in Malaysia. Specifically, the objective FK228 of this paper, a part of a larger study aimed to explore the perceptions of the Malaysian generic manufacturers on the effectiveness of policies and regulations in promoting generic drugs in a Malaysia, and their level of satisfaction with generic dispensing, prescription and awareness in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional descriptive national study using data obtained from a mailed self-completed anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was tested for face and content validity by two faculty members with expertise in survey research and in-depth knowledge of the Malaysian generic medicines industry. The final questionnaire was further evaluated by two generic drug manufacturers for content and clarity. The questionnaire contains three sections of five-point single-item Likert scale

responses that examined the study’s objectives.11 The first section assesses respondent’s find more views on the effectiveness of the regulatory exception provision in the Malaysian patent law in facilitating early market entry of new generic medicines. The second section assesses respondent’s views on the effectiveness of government policies and regulations in promoting generic medicines in Malaysia. The third section assesses respondent’s level of satisfaction regarding the level of generic prescribing; generic dispensing; generic public awareness; and generics education

and information to healthcare professionals in Malaysia. A final section contains questions on respondent’s engagement in generic manufacturing and the market sector of generic sales. The questionnaire these along with a cover letter and a prepaid return envelope was mailed to the entire members (N = 26) of the Malaysian Organization of Pharmaceutical Industries (MOPI) licensed to manufacture prescription medicines in Malaysia. MOPI is the national official representative body of generic drugs manufacturing firms in Malaysia. The chief executive officers or managing directors of all the generics firms were the target audiences of the questionnaire. Non-responders were again mailed the questionnaire materials after the initial mailing three times over three months. Follow-up telephone calls were made to non-responders in two successive months following the last reminder mailing. The entire data collection period was from January 2010 to December 2010. All data collected were entered into SPSS 20.0 for analysis.

Finally, Rho proteins and their regulators have been implicated i

Finally, Rho proteins and their regulators have been implicated in mediating Selleck Everolimus repulsive guidance signaling (Derijck

et al., 2010; Govek et al., 2005; Hall and Lalli, 2010). Links between Rho GTPase signaling and Sema-plexin-mediated guidance prompted us to examine interactions between Drosophila RhoGEFs, RhoGAPs, and receptor-type guidance molecules. We identified pebble (Pbl), a RhoGEF for Rho1, and RhoGAPp190 (p190), a RhoGAP for Rho1, as signaling molecules with the potential to function downstream of Sema-1a reverse signaling in neurons. Our genetic analyses suggest that Pbl and p190 play key opposing roles in Sema-1a reverse signaling. To investigate links between Rho GTPase regulators and semaphorin/plexin-mediated neuronal guidance, we screened several RhoGEF and RhoGAP proteins for their ability to interact with Drosophila PlexA, PlexB, and Sema-1a in Drosophila S2R+

cells in vitro. We found that Pbl weakly interacts with PlexA, while p190 weakly interacts with both PlexA and PlexB ( Figures 1A and 1B). However, when we performed these same protein interaction assays using the PlexA ligand Sema-1a, we found that both Pbl and p190 proteins Venetoclax concentration robustly interact with Sema-1a, to a much greater degree than with either PlexA or PlexB ( Figures 1A and 1B). These strong interactions are apparently specific since other transmembrane proteins, including Drosophila Off-track (Otk), do not coimmunoprecipitate with either Pbl or p190 when coexpressed in S2R+ cells in these same experiments ( Figures 1A and 1B). We also observed in coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP) experiments

that neuronally expressed embryonic HA-Pbl and HA-p190 robustly bind to endogenous Sema-1a in vivo ( Figure S1A available online). These observations suggest that Pbl and p190 participate in intracellular signaling cascades downstream of Sema-1a ( Figure 2E). To further characterize the specificity of these interactions between Sema-1a and Pbl, we mapped the regions of Pbl responsible MycoClean Mycoplasma Removal Kit for interactions with Sema-1a, revealing that the N-terminal domain (NTD), which encompasses two tandem BRCT (BRCA1 C-terminal) domains, is necessary and sufficient for mediating Sema-1a binding (Figure S1B). Through a systematic deletion and mutagenesis analysis of the Sema-1a intracellular domain (ICD), we found that Sema-1a ICD[Δ31–60], in which ICD amino acid residues 31–60 are deleted, and ICD[36G/52A] exhibited differential binding properties to full-length p190 and truncated NTD[Pbl] (Figure 1C; highlighted in red). To address whether this difference is due to the absence of the Pbl C-terminal domain (CTD), we next tested the ability of full-length Pbl and p190 to bind to these mutant forms of the Sema-1a ICD; we observed a significant reduction in Pbl binding to both ICD[Δ31–60] and ICD[36G/52A] (Figure 1D).

, 2011) DNA evidence has been in forensic use for decades It wa

, 2011). DNA evidence has been in forensic use for decades. It was first used in paternity cases to identify children’s fathers. Then, in 1986, police in England asked Alec Jeffreys, a molecular biologist, to use DNA evidence to evaluate the testimony of a 17-year-old boy charged with

raping and murdering two women. The DNA evidence established the boy’s innocence and was later used to convict the actual murderer. Following this impressive beginning, DNA evidence underwent further extensive scrutiny in the courtroom and is now generally admissible in establishing guilt or innocence. Today, there is great interest in using brain-based evidence in criminal proceedings, with neuroscientists acting as expert witnesses. This role is both important and problematic (for review, see Jones et al., 2013). Brain imaging was first introduced into the courtroom in 2006 in Selleckchem Dolutegravir the case of Brian Dugan and has since been used in over 30 cases. Dugan, then 52 years

old, was tried for the kidnapping and murder of a 10-year-old girl. His lawyer used brain imaging to show that Dugan had an injury that caused him to act psychopathically. (Psychopaths do not exhibit increased activity in two particular Veliparib mouse regions of the cortex when showed photographs of a moral violation; rather, they show decreased activity.) Experts testified for and against the validity of using brain imagining as evidence of culpability in such a case. Ultimately, the jury voted unanimously for a death sentence. Similar issues of validity have arisen in regard to memory. The legal system below has been slow to adopt research findings from cognitive psychological and neurological studies that

question not only the reliability of eyewitness testimony but also the memory of jurors. We now realize that memory is a reconstructive process. It is susceptible to distortion and can be quite flawed (Lacy and Stark, 2013). This has profound implications for how much weight we must give eyewitness testimony in court, where even minor memory distortion can have severe consequences. In one experiment, for example, subjects mistakenly misidentified an individual as having committed a minor (staged) crime, when in fact they had only seen that individual later, during the (staged) investigation. Alan Alda, the noted actor, explored the role of brain science in the courtroom for a PBS television program called “Brains on Trial.” In the course of his work he spoke extensively with neuroscientists, lawyers, and judges and came away with two very strong impressions. The first is that the new science of the mind and its insights into brain function are generating a lot of interest in the justice system, including the U.S. Supreme Court.

We have only tested three therapeutic antibodies in vivo Thus, t

We have only tested three therapeutic antibodies in vivo. Thus, the correlations with the in vitro assays could be through

chance. Further studies of anti-tau antibodies with variable potencies in the seeding assay will help address this question. In addition, Fulvestrant datasheet correlation of antibody affinity, epitope, isotype, glycosylation, and ability to bind phosphorylated forms of tau will be important to assess in future studies. This study also reports the effects of direct, intra-CNS infusion of anti-tau antibodies. Despite the fact that the antibodies utilized each target different tau epitopes and do not target phospho-tau, two of three strongly reduced abnormal tau load both immunohistologically and biochemically, and two significantly improved memory, one to a greater extent than

the other. Effects on tau pathology also correlated very well with a reduction in intrinsic Smad tumor seeding activity. HJ8.5 and HJ9.3 strongly decreased pathological tau seeds in vivo. A strong reduction in tau pathology might occur by preventing induction of tau aggregation in neighboring cells. While HJ9.4 did not decrease pathology as potently, it did decrease tau pathology in the amygdala. The variation in effectiveness in different brain regions among the antibodies may be due to the formation of region-specific aggregate conformers for which the antibodies have subtle differences in binding affinity. Once extracellular tau aggregates are sequestered by anti-tau antibodies in vivo, their metabolic fate is not yet

clear. After 3 months of antibody administration, we found reduced microglial activation, presumably due to less tau-related pathology and neurodegeneration. Several months of passive immunization with anti-Aβ antibodies has also been noted to reduce microgliosis (Wilcock et al., 2003). The mechanism by which antibody/tau complexes are cleared in vivo, and the mechanism via which they decrease tau pathology, remains to be definitively clarified. It has been suggested that immunization with anti-α-synuclein antibodies clears α-synuclein aggregates by promoting lysosomal these degradation (Masliah et al., 2011). A recent study with anti-α-synuclein antibodies showed that the antibodies targeted α-synuclein clearance mainly via microglia, presumably through Fc receptors (Bae et al., 2012). Neurons express Fcγ receptors (Andoh and Kuraishi, 2004 and Mohamed et al., 2002) and may be able to internalize IgG complexed with antigen by high-affinity FcγRI receptor (Ravetch and Bolland, 2001). Internalized tau antibodies may contact tau in endosomes and eventually induce clearance of intracellular tau aggregates by the endosomal/lysosomal system (Sigurdsson, 2009). Though the anti-tau antibodies used in our current study can bind extracellular tau assemblies, we found no evidence of significant localization within cells.

This regressor was added in order

to explain away spuriou

This regressor was added in order

to explain away spurious correlation between responses in early visual cortex and some categories. Total motion energy was computed as the mean output of a set of 2,139 motion energy filters (Nishimoto et al., 2011), in which each filter consisted of a quadrature pair of space-time Gabor filters (Adelson and Bergen, 1985; Watson and Ahumada, 1985). The motion energy filters tile the image space with a variety of preferred spacial frequencies, orientations, and temporal frequencies. The total motion energy regressor explained much of the response variance in early visual cortex (mainly V1 and V2). This had the desired effect LY2157299 in vitro of explaining away correlations between responses in early visual cortex and categories that feature full-field motion (e.g., “fire” and “snow”). The total motion energy regressor was used to fit the category model but was

not included in the model predictions. The category model was fit to each voxel individually. A set of linear temporal filters was used to model the slow hemodynamic response inherent in the BOLD signal (Nishimoto et al., 2011). To capture the hemodynamic delay, we used concatenated stimulus vectors that had been delayed by two, three, and four samples (4, 6, and 8 s). For example, one stimulus vector indicates the presence of “wolf” 4 s earlier, another the presence of “wolf” 6 s see more earlier, and a third the presence of “wolf” 8 s earlier. Taking the dot product of Oxymatrine this delayed stimulus with a set of linear weights is functionally equivalent to convolution of the original stimulus vector with a linear temporal kernel that has nonzero entries for 4, 6, and 8 s delays.

For details about the regularized regression procedure, model testing, and correction for noise in the validation set, please see the Supplemental Experimental Procedures. All model fitting and analysis was performed using custom software written in Python, which made heavy use of the NumPy (Oliphant, 2006) and SciPy (Jones et al., 2001) libraries. In the semantic category model used here, each category entails the presence of its superordinate categories in the WordNet hierarchy. For example, “wolf” entails the presence of “canine,” “carnivore,” etc. Because these categories must be present in the stimulus if “wolf” is present, the model weight for “wolf” alone does not accurately reflect the model’s predicted response to a stimulus containing only a “wolf.” Instead, the predicted response to “wolf” is the sum of the weights for “wolf,” “canine,” “carnivore,” etc. Thus, to determine the predicted response of a voxel to a given category, we added together the weights for that category and all categories that it entails. This procedure is equivalent to simulating the response of a voxel to a stimulus labeled only with “wolf.