If MOH shares some neurophysiological features with addiction, long-lasting functional alterations of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system related to medication
overuse should be present. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging data during the execution of a decision-making under risk paradigm in 8 MOH patients immediately after beginning medication withdrawal, in 8 detoxified MOH patients at 6 months after beginning medication withdrawal, in 8 chronic migraine patients, and in 8 control subjects. Our results revealed that MOH patients present: (1) reduced Tamoxifen concentration task-related activity in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex and increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, when compared with controls; (2) reduced activity in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex, when compared with chronic migraine patients; (3) increased activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, when compared with detoxified MOH patients. Our study showed that MOH patients present dysfunctions
in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuit, in particular in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and in the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex. The ventromedial prefrontal selleck chemical cortex dysfunctions seem to be reversible and attributable to the acute/chronic headache, whereas the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area complex dysfunctions are persistent and possibly related to medication medchemexpress overuse. These dysfunctions might be the expression of long-lasting neuroadaptations related to the overuse of medications and/or a pre-existing neurophysiological condition leading to vulnerability to medication overuse. The observed persistent dysfunctions in the midbrain dopamine suggest that MOH may share some neurophysiological
features with addiction. “
“Objective.— Examine whether acceptance and commitment additive therapy is effective in reducing the experience of sensory pain, disability, and affective distress because of chronic headache in a sample of outpatient Iranian females. Background.— Chronic headaches have a striking impact on sufferers in terms of pain, disability, and affective distress. Although several Acceptance and Commitment Therapy outcome studies for chronic pain have been conducted, their findings cannot be completely generalized to chronic headaches because headache-related treatment outcome studies have a different emphasis in both provision and outcomes. Moreover, the possible role of Iranian social and cultural contexts and of gender-consistent issues involved in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy outcomes deserve consideration. Methods.— This study used a randomized pretest–post-test control group design.