Clair, Ottawa-Stony,

Clair, Ottawa-Stony, Raisin, Maumee, Cedar-Portage, Sandusky, Huron-Vermilion, and Cedar Creek

watersheds (#1, 6–11, 24) are dominated by fertilizer; and inputs to the Grand (Ont) and Thames watersheds (#19, 20) are dominated by manure. Just as tributary loads are not evenly distributed among major watersheds, non-point sources within those watersheds vary considerably. To explore this heterogeneity, Bosch et al. (2013) applied calibrated SWAT models (Bosch et al., 2011) of the Huron, Raisin, Maumee, Sandusky, Cuyahoga, and Grand watersheds representing together 53% of the binational Lake Erie basin. These authors simulated subwatershed average annual TP and DRP yields (Fig. 14) for 1998–2005. Their results indicate, for example, that the Maumee River subwatersheds with the highest DRP yield were located sporadically throughout the watershed; whereas, those yielding high TP loads were found primarily in its upper reaches. By contrast, high-yield subwatersheds for both DRP and TP were dispersed throughout the Sandusky River watershed; while subwatersheds in the upper reaches of the Cuyahoga River watershed were the greatest sources of both DRP and TP. Findings such as these led Bosch et al. (2013) to conclude that DRP and

TP flux is not uniformly distributed within the watersheds. For example, 36% of DRP and 41% of TP come from ~ 25% of the agriculturally dominated Maumee River sub-watersheds. Similar disproportionate contributions Akt inhibition of DRP and TP were found for the Sandusky River watershed (33% and 38%, respectively) and Cuyahoga watershed (44% and 39%, respectively). These collective

results suggest that spatial targeting of management actions would be an effective P reduction strategy. However, it is important to note that these loads represent flux to the stream channels at the exit of each subwatershed, not P delivered to the lake. Thus, the maps of important contributing sources of TP and DRP to the lake could be different if flux to the lake were considered. In addition to identifying potential sources of TP and DRP to the Lake Erie ecosystem, PtdIns(3,4)P2 the EcoFore-Lake Erie program sought to evaluate how land-use practices could influence nutrient inputs that drive hypoxia formation. In the following sections, we review some of the available best management practices (BMPs) and use SWAT modeling to test their effectiveness in influencing nutrient flux. McElmurry et al. (2013) reviewed the effectiveness of the current suite of urban and agricultural BMPs available for managing P loads to Lake Erie. Because of the dominance of agricultural non-point sources, we focus here on agricultural BMPs. The Ohio Lake Erie Phosphorus Task Force also recommended a suite of BMPs for reducing nutrient and sediment exports to Lake Erie (OH-EPA 2010). Source BMPs (Sharpley et al., 2006) are designed to minimize P pollution at its source.

Thus, it is useful to consider the paradigm of “bankfull” flow (s

Thus, it is useful to consider the paradigm of “bankfull” flow (sensu Leopold et al., 1964), to understand natural range of process dynamics in stable alluvial channels relative to incised channels. Bankfull flow is considered to be the dominant discharge, or range of channel forming flows, that creates a stable alluvial channel form ( Wolman and Miller, 1960). In stable alluvial channels, frequently recurring bankfull find more flows fill the channel to the top of the banks before water overflows the channel onto adjacent floodplains—hence the term “bankfull. However, two factors challenge using the stable channel morphologic

and hydrologic bankfull paradigm in incising channels. First, in an incising channel, former morphologic bankfull indicators, such as the edge of the floodplain, no longer represent the channel forming flow stage. Second, in incising channels high flow magnitudes increasingly become contained within the channel without reaching the top of the banks or overflowing

onto the floodplain such that channel-floodplain connectivity diminishes. Any flood that is large enough to fill an incised channel from bank to bank has an increasingly large transport capacity relative to the former channel forming flow, such as is illustrated in the Robinson Creek case study where transport capacity in the incised channel increased by up to 22% since incision began. Therefore, we suggest that the term “bankfull” be abandoned when UMI-77 considering incised Amino acid systems. Instead we use the concept of “effective flow,” the flow necessary

to mobilize sediment that moves as bedload in alluvial channels. We explain our rationale through development of a metric to identify and determine the extent of incision in Robinson Creek or in other incised alluvial channels. Despite the inapplicability of the term bankfull to incised alluvial channels, considering the concept does lead to a potential tool to help identify when a channel has incised. For example, in stable alluvial channels, bankfull stage indicates a lower limiting depth necessary for entrainment (Parker and Peterson, 1968) required for bar formation because sediment must be mobilized to transport gravel from upstream to a bar surface (Church and Jones, 1982). Thus, in a stable gravel-bed alluvial channels, bar height may be taken as a rough approximation of the depth of flow required to entrain gravel before increasing flow stages overtop channel banks and inundate floodplains. Prior estimates in stable northern California alluvial creeks suggest that bar surface elevation is ∼71% of bankfull depth (e.g. Florsheim, 1985). In incised channels, bar surface elevation may still represent an estimate of the height of effective channel flow required to entrain sediment, as increasing flow stages are confined to an incised channel.

Mousterian assemblages in Eurasia show greater variation through

Mousterian assemblages in Eurasia show greater variation through space and time, but are still relatively static compared to the rapid technological changes that characterize the technologies developed by AMH. After the beginning of the Middle Stone Age in Africa about 250,000 years ago, there is evidence for a rapid and accelerating tempo of technological change among AMH populations, beginning with blade-based technologies, more sophisticated bifacial tools, the first appearance of microlithic tools, as well as formal bone,

ground stone, weaving, ceramic, and other technologies. Progressing through the Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron ages, technological change among AMH often occurred very rapidly, marked by nearly constant RGFP966 innovation and ingenuity. check details Such innovations include the first widespread evidence for art and personal ornamentation, tailored clothing, boats, harpoons, the domestication of the dog, and much more. By 10,000 years ago, humans were domesticating a variety of plants and animals independently in various parts of the world (see Goudie, 2000 and Smith and Zeder, 2014), a process of experimentation and genetic manipulation that led to a fundamental

realignment in the relationship of humans to their local environments. With better technologies and increasingly productive methods of food production (combined with foraging), human populations expanded and developed increasingly complex social, economic, and political institutions, again almost simultaneously

in multiple parts of the world. These processes fueled additional innovation and ever-greater human impacts on local and regional ecosystems. As early states evolved into kingdoms, empires, and nations, the stage was set for broader social and economic networks, leading to exchange of goods and ideas, exploration, competition, cooperation, and conflict, the results of which still play out today in a globalized but highly competitive world. Reverse transcriptase Since the 1960s, archeologists have debated the nearly simultaneous appearance of domestication, agriculture, and complex cultures in widely dispersed areas around the world, areas with very different ecologies as well as human colonization and demographic histories. Traditional explanations for this Holocene ‘revolution’ have relied on environmental change, population pressure, and growing resource stress as the primary causes for such widespread yet similar developmental trajectories among human societies around the world (e.g., Binford, 1968, Cohen, 1977, Cohen, 2009 and Hayden, 1981; see also Richerson et al., 2001). All these stimuli may have contributed to cultural developments in various regions, but today, armed with much more information about the very different colonization, environmental, and developmental histories of human societies in various areas, such explanations no longer seem adequate.

Dunes protected by a beach or embryo dunes higher than the water

Dunes protected by a beach or embryo dunes higher than the water overflow were not eroded (Figure 4). On beaches lower than 2.5 m, every embryo dune that had developed since 2010 was eroded. The higher the form, the greater the volume of sand that was removed. Only embryo dunes located on beaches over 3 m

amsl were safe. Erosion was the strongest on beaches lower than 2 m. Erosion understood as dune retreat was greater when a beach was lower (coefficient 0.8). Foredune sections of the coast that had hitherto been accumulative witnessed dune foot erosion at a rate of 2–9 m after described storm surges (Table 2), i.e. from 2 to 4 times more than the annual rate of retreat of the Polish coast (1 m per year). Figure 5 presents selected profiles representing different types of foredune erosion XL184 mouse forced by the beach height during the events described. The mean rate of dune erosion was 2.5 m3 with an average Y-27632 clinical trial toe retreat of 1.4 m. The volumetric erosion of sand per square metre of dune exceeded 0.3 m3. On seriously threatened sections of the coast, the volume of sand washed off the dune ridge was larger than 1.0 m3 per square metre. This was a typical situation on the coastal section where the beach was lower than 2.5 m. The rate of sand washout was higher when a foredune was higher than 6 m. Throughout the study area, the largest loss of sediment from a

dune was estimated at 1.2–1.4 m3 per square metre. Figure 6 illustrates examples of dune damage on the monitored sections of the coast. On the lower sections of the coast washover fans 5-FU were formed that encroached on to the land up to 200 m from the beach, for example, on the Hel Peninsula and the Karwia Sandbar. The mouths of the channels connecting lakes with the sea were reformed and enlarged by waves flowing back into the lakes. After the storm, beaches were narrower by 10 to 20 m. The strongest storms, with force 10–12 winds, are produced by NE winds (after Zeidler et al. 1995). All autumn-winter storms have caused erosion and a southward retreat

of the coast at an average rate of 0.1 m year−1 over the last 100 years and 0.5 m year−1 from 1960 to 1983 (Zawadzka-Kahlau, 1999 and Zawadzka-Kahlau, 2012). On the southern Baltic coast the sea level during a storm may rise to 1.5–2 m amsl (Zeidler 1995); water flows on to the land, however, can reach 3.5 m amsl (Łabuz, 2009 and Łabuz, 2013), and such events can cause flooding in these areas. The lower the beach, the greater the dune erosion (Figure 7). The retreat of a dune foot is also related to the beach height (Table 3). Water overflows low dune ridges, artificial paths and depressions up to 3.5 m amsl, causing washover fan development (Łabuz 2009). All relief forms below this level are abraded, and dune ridges in the beach hinterland are subject to regression.

The concentrations of complement proteins C3 and C4 should be det

The concentrations of complement proteins C3 and C4 should be determined, but normal levels do not exclude CAD.[4], [6], [31] and [39] Confirming Selleck U0126 the presence

of a clonal lymphoproliferative disorder has potential therapeutic consequences, even though negative findings may be a matter of sensitivity and do not exclude primary CAD.[6] and [31] Capillary electrophoresis or agarose electrophoresis with immunofixation should always be performed. If no monoclonal band can be detected on electrophoresis, immunofixation should still be done. A trephine biopsy should be examined by an experienced lymphoma pathologist, and we also recommend flow cytometric immunophenotyping of bone marrow lymphocytes.[8] and [9] History and clinical examination, supplemented by

radiological imaging as required, will usually be sufficient to exclude cases of secondary chronic CAS described below. The diagnostic criteria for primary CAD are summarized in Table 3.[6] and [31]Fig. 2 shows a diagnostic algorithm. Importantly, in order to achieve sufficient sensitivity, serum for immunoglobulin analyses and CA titration must be obtained from blood specimens kept at 37–38 °C from sampling until serum has been removed from the clot. After primary CAD was shown to be a clonal lymphoproliferative disease, there has been some confusion in the literature regarding the terms ‘secondary’ versus ‘primary’. Patients with chronic CAD recognized by us and others as having a clonal B-cell disorder, most MLN0128 nmr often non-progressive and clinically non-malignant, undoubtedly represent the same majority that has traditionally been diagnosed with primary or idiopathic CAD.[1], [6], [8] and [36] In these patients, the disease should still be called primary CAD. The term ‘secondary’

chronic CAS should be reserved for those patients Loperamide in whom the cold-antibody mediated hemolytic anemia complicates an overt and well-defined malignant disease different from LPL and MZL.[1], [6], [31], [42], [47] and [48] Among 295 consecutive individuals with AIHA described by Dacie, 7 patients (2.4%) were classified as having CAS secondary to malignant disease.1 In the very large series of AIHA by Sokol’s group, the frequency seemed higher.2 CAS has been described in patients diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, carcinomas, sarcomas, metastatic melanoma and chronic myeloproliferative disorders.[1], [2], [12], [13], [47], [48], [49] and [50] For the following reasons, however, both the reported frequencies and some of the assumed associations should be regarded uncertain. First, particularly in case reports, patients may simply have suffered from two independent diseases; cancer and primary CAD. Second, sufficient details have often not been provided to critically review the diagnosis of the co-existing or underlying malignancy.

, 2004) The remaining functional volumes were spatially realigne

, 2004). The remaining functional volumes were spatially realigned to the first image of the series, and distortion corrections were applied based on the field maps using the Unwarp routines in SPM (Andersson et al., 2001; Hutton et al., 2002). Each participant’s structural scan was then co-registered to a mean image of their realigned, distortion-corrected functional scans. The structural images were segmented into grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid using the New Segment tool within SPM8. The

DARTEL normalization process was then applied to the GM and WM segmented images, which iteratively warped the images into a common space using nonlinear registration (Ashburner, 2007). Using the output of this nonlinear warping process, all functional SB431542 and structural images were normalised to MNI space using DARTEL’s ‘Normalise to MNI’ tool. The functional images were smoothed using a Gaussian kernel with full-width at half maximum of 8 mm. Structural MRI scans were analysed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM; Ashburner and Friston, 2000, 2005) implemented in SPM8, employing a smoothing kernel of 8 mm full-width at half maximum. For a priori ROIs (HC, PHC and RSC – see Section 2.7), we applied a statistical threshold of p < .001 uncorrected

for multiple comparisons. For the rest of the brain, we employed a family-wise error (FWE)-corrected threshold of p < .05. We searched for structural correlates of individual differences in BE, and found no significant selleck compound effects in the MTLs, or elsewhere in the brain. Statistical analysis of the fMRI data was applied to the

pre-processed data using a general linear model. The primary analysis involved a comparison of activity elicited by the first scene presentation on trials where BE occurred and those first presentation trials where it did not. To do this, we used each participant’s behavioural data in order to divide the trials into those where BE occurred (all trials where the second scene was judged to be closer than the first – the BE condition), and those where it did not occur (the Null condition). The Null 4��8C condition consisted of trials where the second scene was judged to be the same or further away than the first, as in both cases BE did not occur. By pooling across both types of Null trial in this way, we increased the power of the analysis. We used a stick function to model the onset of each first scene presentation, dividing the trials into two conditions based on the subsequent behavioural choice data, thus creating a BE regressor and a Null regressor. These stick functions were convolved with the canonical haemodynamic response function and its temporal derivative to create the two regressors of interest. We also used a stick function to model the second scene presentations, dividing them into BE and Null conditions, which were included as regressors of no interest.

L׳analisi dei dati soggettivi è tuttavia necessaria per capire co

L׳analisi dei dati soggettivi è tuttavia necessaria per capire cosa accada realmente. Disponendo delle singole mosse (Fig. 5, Fig. B1, Fig. B2 and Fig. B3 dell׳Appendice B), i dati possono essere interpretati per gruppi: • Il gruppo M giunge all׳equilibrio di Nash (tratti paralleli) dopo 9 mosse della 1. fase. Nella 2. fase, senza flessione dei guadagni medi, si accorda sulla SdE mista BN-NB-NN. Nella 3.fase, la comparsa dell׳orso porta una dinamica non lineare a numero medio di “pesi” costante. Nella 4. fase, di pendenza media minore che nella 1. fase, si ha equilibrio sostenibile su SdE mista BN-NB-BB-BB a numero medio di

“pesi” nullo; Leggendo le partite per fasi come nella SPG, anche la 1. fase della SPC può definirsi Far West (sebbene l׳orso non ci sia ancora): non potendo accordarsi, i giocatori Osimertinib research buy utilizzano l׳equilibrio di Nash come strategia di minimo rischio, portando il massimo guadagno a entrambi senza collaborazione. La 2. fase è di Risveglio solo per il gruppo M, che avvia proficuamente la collaborazione: nel gruppo F si protrae la 1. fase. La comparsa dell׳orso nella 3. fase porta al Risveglio solo F1, F2 invece continua la fase competitiva da Far West; nel gruppo M c׳è una strana fase difficilmente

classificabile. La 4. fase porta a un vero accordo di Kyoto nel gruppo M, mentre conferma il duello da Far West a parti invertite nel gruppo F. In breve, anche se l׳analisi dei dati soggettivi dovrà spiegarne la 3. fase, la partita del gruppo M è “vinta”, quella del gruppo F, fortemente competitiva per ragioni da individuare, “persa”. Nell׳Appendice learn more B si esplicitano le categorie individuate nei dati Masitinib (AB1010) soggettivi della SPC, riportando campioni significativi di commenti alle mosse e finali per ogni fase. La

loro lettura conferma o smentisce quanto ipotizzato dai dati oggettivi. La/il lettrice/tore interessato potrà ricorrervi: qui si presentano solo, nelle Fig. 9a-d, i diagrammi a ragnatela con gli spettri delle categorie dei gruppi M e F per fase; sotto ciascuno di essi, a parità di fase, gli spettri individuali su grafici cartesiani, con categorie in ascissa e loro frequenze di osservazione in ordinata. I diagrammi di gruppo sono ordinati secondo le frequenze del gruppo M (F se uguali), l׳unico a realizzare una SdE sostenibile. Ciò ordina anche le ascisse degli spettri individuali (frequenze maggiori nel gruppo, ascisse minori nel singolo), ma non le ordinate, legate a scelte individuali (i diagrammi di gruppo sono normalizzati a tutte le risposte, quelli individuali a quelle del singolo). Per ottenere un quadro coerente con la SPG su protocolli di gioco diversi, si ricorda che l׳analisi comparata dei gruppi o dei singoli è per categorie trasversali alle fasi, non per diagrammi a esse relativi (che condividono categorie).

, 2004) It should be emphasised, however, that BPs do protect ag

, 2004). It should be emphasised, however, that BPs do protect against oxidative and frame-shift mutation when present extracellularly, indicating a clear role for BPs in neutralising mutagens before entering cells. Furthermore, it should be noted that BR causes apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro ( Keshavan et al., 2004), providing an additional mechanism for chemoprevention. These data further emphasise the importance of therapeutically elevating BR concentrations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer

( McCarty, 2007). Reports to indicate that Venetoclax price BV and BRDT are readily absorbed across cultured enterocytes ( Bulmer et al., 2008a) support this theory. These data confirm that potential anti-mutagenic BP effects in vivo could be induced by increasing concentrations in the gut lumen ( Bulmer et al., 2011) where food-borne mutagens are found, or by increasing blood BP content in vivo to impart protection from DNA damage ( Wallner et al., 2012). Although the results of these in vitro experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to in vivo settings, the results suggest BPs in the extracellular milieu (e.g., in the gut lumen/blood) could play a key role in cellular protection, by intercepting mutagens before they

arrive at their site of action (e.g., DNA). The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest. This work was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF), Grant number P21162-B11. “
“Living organisms Beta adrenergic receptor kinase use a series of integral membrane protein complexes for energy conversion and ATP synthesis (Hatefi, 1985). In addition to their crucial role in energy production and metabolic pathways, the mitochondrial complexes also play key roles in integrating cell death stimuli and executing the

apoptotic program (Navarro and Boveris, 2007). Accordingly, several human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Friedreich’s ataxia, familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington’s disease, are associated with mitochondrial electron transport chain inhibition, energy metabolism impairment and oxidative stress (Beal, 1998 and Nicholls and Budd, 2000). Additionally, biochemical studies indicate a decline of electron transport and in some bioenergetic activities of mitochondria during aging and ischemia–reperfusion (Cadenas and Davies, 2000, Caspersen et al., 2005, Cortopassi and Wong, 1999, Hagen et al., 1998, Hauptmann et al., 2006, Navarro and Boveris, 2007, Nicholls, 2002, Saris and Eriksson, 1995 and Sastre et al., 2003). Thus, mitochondrial dysfunction can be associated with different degenerative cellular processes. Organoselenium and organotellurium compounds have been extensively studied because of their potential antioxidant capacity (Arteel and Sies, 2001, Barbosa et al., 2006, Barbosa et al., 2008, de Bem et al., 2009, de Freitas et al., 2009, Hort et al., 2011, Moretto et al., 2007, Nogueira and Rocha, 2011, Parnham and Graf, 1991, Prauchner et al.

1C) The ER-alpha was mild and showed a localization similar to t

1C). The ER-alpha was mild and showed a localization similar to that observed in group V (Fig. 1D and Table 1). However, in animals treated with oestrogen (group III), selleckchem INS-R and ER-alpha were expressed moderately (Fig. 1E and F and Table 1). In animals treated with insulin (group II), INS-R was expressed mildly and was mainly localized around the salivary ducts. In contrast, expression of oestrogen receptors was intense and these receptors were immunolocalized in epithelial cells, mainly close to the nuclei (Fig.

1G and H and Table 1). Diabetic animals of group I showed mild and intense expression of insulin and oestrogen receptors, respectively (Fig. 1I and J and Table 1). Expression of INS-R was intense in group V and was localized close to the acini and mainly in the glandular ducts (Fig. 2A). In this group, expression of ER-alpha was mild and was localized in the nucleus of ductal cells (Fig. 2B and Table 1). In group IV, INS-R was expressed intensely close to the salivary ducts (Fig. 2C). ER-alpha showed mild expression close to the nucleus of ductal cells (Fig. 2D and Table 1). In group III, expression of ER-alpha and INS-R was moderate and was localized close the nuclei of epithelial cells and glandular ducts, respectively (Fig. 2E and F and Table 1). In animals

treated with insulin (group II), there was intense expression of ER-alpha close the nuclei of epithelial cells. INS-R expression KU-57788 ic50 was mild and mainly

occurred close tuclazepam to the ducts (Fig. 2G and H and Table 1). In group I, expression of INS-R and ER-alpha was very mild and intense, respectively, maintaining the pattern of localization (Fig. 2I and J and Table 1). In the present study, untreated diabetic animals showed elevated glucose levels, whereas these levels returned to normal and were similar to that of the control group in animals treated with insulin alone and in combination with oestrogen. It should be pointed out that glucose levels were also significantly reduced in the group receiving only oestrogen. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse represents one of the best models of insulin-dependent diabetes.46 Insulin is an anabolic hormone produced by the pancreas but is also secreted to different extents by other organs and is known to be a mediator of physiological events in the salivary glands. Insulin regulates blood glucose levels and maintains the homeostasis of different tissues.28, 32, 47 and 48 According to Hu et al.,49 under the action of insulin normal glucose levels are close to 180 mg/dl, whereas an effective diabetic state is characterized by mean levels of 300 mg/dl or higher.43 In addition to insulin, oestrogen also affects glucose metabolism and insulin resistance and might be associated with the development of diabetes mellitus.50 Other studies support these findings.

The ch

The Selleckchem Epigenetics Compound Library MSFD presented 11 descriptors which need to be assessed (for details, see Borja et al. (2010)): (1) biodiversity; (2) non-indigenous species; (3) exploited fish and shellfish; (4) food webs; (5) human-induced eutrophication; (6) sea-floor integrity; (7) hydrographical conditions; (8) contaminants in water and sediment; (9) contaminants in fish and shellfish; (10) marine litter; and (11) introduction of energy/noise. Taking into account the extent of our oceans, and the need to monitor all of them, better developments in marine observation and sampling are needed, to be implemented together

with the classical monitoring surveys. Examples are shown below (the potential related descriptors, as numbered above, are shown between parentheses). (i) Development of physico-chemical and biological sensors, to measure new variables (i.e. a variety of pollutants, different nutrients,

etc.), including low-cost sensors to be included in automatic stations and oceanographic buoys (1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9). Until now, most of the automatic devices are high-cost, so routine and extensive monitoring will require a reduction of costs. In this way, the recent European initiative ‘Marine Knowledge 2020’ ( tries to collect data and observations from our seas, to facilitate access to data layers of comparable and compatible parameters; and to apply this information for improving our knowledge of marine waters. After obtaining the information, some new technologies (or improvement of those existing) Oxalosuccinic acid for analysis and integration of the information are needed, as shown below (the potential related descriptors, as numbered

click here above, are shown between parentheses). (i) Development of automatic identification and counting of species, and use of genetics in identification (1, 2, 3, 6). There is an increasing need for rapid assessment of marine systems, which probably will require fast automatic taxonomic identification, at least to family level. In addition, as these descriptors are used to assess environmental status, especially in relation to the human pressures to which our oceans are being affected, there is also a need of new methods and technologies for restoration of degraded ecosystems. Minimization of impacts could be undertaken by means of Marine Spatial Planning (Ehler and Douvere, 2009), to avoid accumulation of pressures in key areas. Some of the most important human pressures (Claudet and Fraschetti, 2010) in open waters are listed below (not exhaustive), together with some suggestions on technologies to remove or reduce them. (i) Fishing: minimization of fuel consumption (design of new engines, software for route optimization, etc.), added value for by-catches (transformation, new products, etc.), design of more selective fishing gears, polyvalent fishing boats (i.e. able to catch different species, using different gears), marine reserves creation and management, etc.